Majors and Minors

2016 - 2017 Catalog

The Romance Languages department has the following degrees:

French major leading to BA degree

A major in French leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires demonstrated proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and completion of at least 31 credits distributed as follows:

  1. FREN 261, 273, and 397
  2. One course in civilization: FREN 280, 281, 282, 283, or 285
  3. Two additional French courses numbered 200 or above. The department head may approve any one Romance languages literature, film, or culture course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.
  4. Four additional French courses numbered 300 or above

The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one term, and preferably a full academic year.

Students who wish to work in French and another Romance Language are advised to see the description of the Romance Languages major.

  1. Required courses:
    • FREN 261 - Conversation et composition: Cours avancé

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

      Further development of conversational skills and beginning work in free composition, with systematic grammar review and word study in various relevant cultural contexts.


    • FREN 273 - Introduction à l'analyse littéraire

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

      An introduction to French literature and literary analysis based on a study of selected prose, poetry, and theater. Focus on textual analysis in composition and oral presentations.


    • FREN 397 - Séminaire avancé

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      The in-depth study of a topic in French literature and/or civilization. Recent offerings include: La Littérature francophone du Maghreb; La littérature Beure; La France sous l'occupation; Les femmes et l'écriture au XVIIe siècle; Les écrivains du XXe siècle et la diversité culturelle; L'affaire Dreyfus. Students are encouraged to use this course for the development of a personal project. May be repeated for degree credit when the topics are different.

      Fall 2016, FREN 397A-01: Séminaire avancé - Femmes écrivaines africaines: s'écrire et écrire le monde (3). Prerequisites: Three French courses at the 200 level. While providing an overview of the trajectory of women's writing from its beginnings in the late 60s, the course will focus more heavily on the literary endeavors of women from the late 70s to the twenty-first century.  Through representative works from this extended period, we shall examine how women address such issues as patriarchy, tradition, modernity, the self in society, as well as the question of feminism itself. (HL) Kamara.

       


  2. Take one course in civilization from the following:
    • FREN 280 - Civilisation et culture francophones

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization in francophone countries. Topics may include: contemporary Africa, pre-colonial Africa, West Indian history and culture, and Canadian contemporary issues. Readings, discussion and papers in French further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 281 - Civilisation et culture françaises: Traditions et changements

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter

      A study of significant aspects of French culture and civilization, seen in a diachronic perspective. Emphasis on economic, sociological and historical changes that shaped present-day institutions and national identity. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 282 - Civilisation et culture françaises: La France d'aujourd'hui

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      A study of modern France. This course examines the economic, political, social and intellectual issues which shape contemporary French life. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.

      Fall 2016, FREN 282-01: Civilisation et culture françaises: Les grands dossiers de la presse (3). Prerequisites: FREN 162, 164 or instructor consent. A study of contemporary France through the issues that are being raised in the press. This course examines the economic, social, societal, and political issues that currently shape the lives of French people. We use recent articles in the written press, newscasts, documentaries, interviews and films as a basis for discussion and reflection. Readings, discussions, and papers in French for further development of communication skills. (HU). Frégnac-Clave.


    • FREN 283 - Histoire des idées

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter 2017

      This course retraces the evolution of thought in France across centuries through the examination of intellectual, cultural and artistic movements. Readings, discussions and paper in French for further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 285 - Spring Term Topics in French Civilization

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization through direct experience abroad in France and/or Francophone countries. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


  3. Take two additional French courses numbered 200 or above.
  4. The department head may approve any one Romance languages literature, film, or culture course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.

  5. Take four additional French courses numbered 300 or above.
  6. Study Abroad
  7. The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one term, and preferably a full academic year.

Romance Languages major, with a French emphasis, leading to a BA degree

A major in Romance languages, with a French emphasis, leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree consists of at least 33 credits as follows:

  1. FREN 261, 273, and 397
  2. One course in civilization: FREN 280, 281, 282, 283 or 285
  3. One additional French course numbered 200 or above. The department head may approve any one Romance language literature, film, or culture course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.
  4. Four additional French courses numbered 300 or above
  5. Completion of one of the following sequences:

a. the intermediate level or its equivalent in Spanish (SPAN 162, 164 or 172) and one of the following three pairings:

SPAN 220 and 240
SPAN 211 and 240
SPAN 212 and 220

b. PORT 163 and two 200-level Portuguese courses

c. ITAL 163 and two 200-level Italian courses

The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one semester, and preferably one academic year.

Students interested in using Portuguese or Italian in combination with French or Spanish for the Romance Languages major should consult with the appropriate faculty member (or department head).

  1. Required courses
    • FREN 261 - Conversation et composition: Cours avancé

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

      Further development of conversational skills and beginning work in free composition, with systematic grammar review and word study in various relevant cultural contexts.


    • FREN 273 - Introduction à l'analyse littéraire

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

      An introduction to French literature and literary analysis based on a study of selected prose, poetry, and theater. Focus on textual analysis in composition and oral presentations.


    • FREN 397 - Séminaire avancé

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      The in-depth study of a topic in French literature and/or civilization. Recent offerings include: La Littérature francophone du Maghreb; La littérature Beure; La France sous l'occupation; Les femmes et l'écriture au XVIIe siècle; Les écrivains du XXe siècle et la diversité culturelle; L'affaire Dreyfus. Students are encouraged to use this course for the development of a personal project. May be repeated for degree credit when the topics are different.

      Fall 2016, FREN 397A-01: Séminaire avancé - Femmes écrivaines africaines: s'écrire et écrire le monde (3). Prerequisites: Three French courses at the 200 level. While providing an overview of the trajectory of women's writing from its beginnings in the late 60s, the course will focus more heavily on the literary endeavors of women from the late 70s to the twenty-first century.  Through representative works from this extended period, we shall examine how women address such issues as patriarchy, tradition, modernity, the self in society, as well as the question of feminism itself. (HL) Kamara.

       


  2. One course in civilization from:
    • FREN 280 - Civilisation et culture francophones

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization in francophone countries. Topics may include: contemporary Africa, pre-colonial Africa, West Indian history and culture, and Canadian contemporary issues. Readings, discussion and papers in French further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 281 - Civilisation et culture françaises: Traditions et changements

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter

      A study of significant aspects of French culture and civilization, seen in a diachronic perspective. Emphasis on economic, sociological and historical changes that shaped present-day institutions and national identity. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 282 - Civilisation et culture françaises: La France d'aujourd'hui

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      A study of modern France. This course examines the economic, political, social and intellectual issues which shape contemporary French life. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.

      Fall 2016, FREN 282-01: Civilisation et culture françaises: Les grands dossiers de la presse (3). Prerequisites: FREN 162, 164 or instructor consent. A study of contemporary France through the issues that are being raised in the press. This course examines the economic, social, societal, and political issues that currently shape the lives of French people. We use recent articles in the written press, newscasts, documentaries, interviews and films as a basis for discussion and reflection. Readings, discussions, and papers in French for further development of communication skills. (HU). Frégnac-Clave.


    • FREN 283 - Histoire des idées

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter 2017

      This course retraces the evolution of thought in France across centuries through the examination of intellectual, cultural and artistic movements. Readings, discussions and paper in French for further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 285 - Spring Term Topics in French Civilization

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization through direct experience abroad in France and/or Francophone countries. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


  3. One additional French course numbered 200 or above
  4. The department head may approve any one Romance language literature, film, or culture course taught by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.

  5. Four additional French courses numbered 300 or above
  6. Completion of one of the following sequences:
  7. a. the intermediate level or its equivalent in Spanish (SPAN 162, 164 or 172) and one of the following three pairings:

    SPAN 220 and 240
    SPAN 211 and 240
    SPAN 212 and 220b. 

    b. PORT 163 and two 200-level Portuguese courses

    c. ITAL 163 and two 200-level Italian courses

  8. Study abroad
  9. The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one semester, and preferably one academic year.

Romance Languages major, with a Spanish emphasis, leading to a BA degree

A major in Romance languages, with a Spanish emphasis, leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree consists of at least 33 credits as follows:

  1. SPAN 220, 240 and 275
  2. One additional 200-level course in Spanish. The department head may approve any one Romance language literature, film, or culture course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.
  3. Five Spanish courses numbered 300 or above, as follows:
    1. One course on literature of Spanish America chosen from SPAN 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 350, 352, 354, and 398
    2. One course on literature of Spain chosen from SPAN 312, 320, 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 333 and 397
    3. One additional course in literature chosen from SPAN 312, 320, 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 333, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 347, 346, 348, 350, 352, 354, 397, and 398
    4. Two additional Spanish courses numbered 300 or above
  4. Completion of one of the following sequences:
    a. Completion of the intermediate level or its equivalent in French (FREN 162, 164, or 172), FREN 261, and one course chosen from FREN 273, 280, 281, 282, 283 or 285.
    b. PORT 163 and two 200-level Portuguese courses
    c. ITAL 163 and two 200-level Italian courses

The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one semester, and preferably one academic year, in a Spanish-speaking country.

Students interested in using Portuguese or Italian in combination with French or Spanish for the Romance Languages major should consult with the appropriate faculty member (or department head).

  1. Required courses:
  2. One additional 200-level course in Spanish
  3. The department head may approve any one Romance language literature, film, or culture course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.

  4. Five Spanish courses numbered 300 or above, as follows:
    • One course on literature of Spanish America chosen from
      • SPAN 340 - Spanish-American Short Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2016 and every third year

        A study of the Spanish-American short story with special attention to the works of Quiroga, Borges, Cortázar, and Valenzuela.


      • SPAN 341 - 20th-Century Mexican Literature: Beyond Revolution

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2017 and every third year

        This course examines the artistic reaction to the 1910 Mexican Revolution and seeks to understand its aesthetic impact on 20th-century Mexican artists from a variety of genres. Seminal works from narrative, poetry, and essay as well as the visual arts reveal how some artists promoted the ideals of the Revolution, others became disenchanted, and still others invented revolutionary styles of expression in order to convey a new cultural self-perception and worldview.


      • SPAN 342 - Spanish-American Narrative: The Boom Generation

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2019 and alternate years

        Readings in the contemporary Spanish-American narrative of the second half of the 20th century with special emphasis on the members of the "Boom" generation, such as Rulfo, Fuentes, García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Carpentier, and Puig. In addition to short narrative pieces, the readings include El Tunel (Ernesto Sábato), El Amor y Otros Demonios (García Márquez), Aura (Carlos Fuentes), Los Pasos Perdidos (Carpentier), and Casa de Los Espiritus (Allende). The class meets once a week for three hours so that we may maximize our time with each novel.


      • SPAN 343 - Spanish-American Colonial Literature

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        This course examines the Latin American Colonial period by reading the most important Spanish, Creole, and indigenous texts of the period, and by reflecting on the violent cultural dynamics that created the problematic notion of continental "America." The questions this course examines are related to how identity discourses are produced in Colonial America, and who are the main agents involved in this process. By analyzing the different sides of the Latin American colonial experience, the student will be able to critically approach many "given" paradigms that inform our understanding of the Americas and of the world.


      • SPAN 344 - Spanish-American Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Analysis of the most relevant poetic texts of Spanish-America, including U.S. Hispanic poetry, beginning with precursors of 20th-century poetry and spanning to contemporary works. Representative works include those by Octavio Paz, Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda, Nicanor Parra, Ernesto Cardenal, Raúl Zurita, among others.


      • SPAN 345 - Spanish-American Modernist Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Considered the literary movement that achieves the "linguistic independence" of Latin America from Spain, Modernismo is the first "original aesthetic" which exercises an influence on the poetic production of Europe. This course studies the movement through the poems and works by four of its principal writers: the Nicaraguan Ruben Dario, the Mexican Manuel Gutierrez Najera, the Peruvian Manuel Gonzalez Prada, and the Cuban Jose Marti. By contrasting their literature to the "paradigm of modernity" which surrounded its production, the course distinguishes the dialectics between the artists and their respective geopolitical circumstances. By analyzing the literature of writers from different regions, we visualize and distinguish the divergent modernities which emerged in Latin America during the 19th century and the diverse artistic reactions and consequences.


      • SPAN 347 - Poetry and Power

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and when departmental resources permit

        This is a course about reading. We read Spanish-American poetry on power and violence as a way of engaging and investigating the multifaceted and layered historiographies of the region. To intensify our reading, we also "read" a diversity of complementary cultural production, including paintings, murals, and music. Through these self-conscious acts of reading--that is, acts of identifying, evaluating, and critiquing form as much as content--we enhance our ability to analyze and debate ways of defining power in the Americas from within, without, and in liminal zones. Recurring motifs include sexism, racism, classism, and fascism.


      • SPAN 348 - Spanish-American Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        An examination of the role of women writers in the development of Spanish- American literary history, including U.S. Hispanic writers. Textual and cultural analysis of readings from multiple genres by authors such as Poniatowska, Ferré, Bombal, Mastretta, Gambaro, Lispector, Valenzuela, Castellanos, Cisneros, Esquivel, Peri Rossi, and Allende, among others.


      • SPAN 350 - The Cuban Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A multigenre examination of 20th-century Cuba as its own "story." Beginning with the first European account of Columbus, to insights from slaves, to finally more recent writers who question its future, the course presents the development of Cuban society as its own narrative. Major readings by Manzano, Barnet, Marti, Carpentier, Castro, Guevara, Garcia, and Hernandez Diaz, among others. Shorter anthologized works by Guillen, Lezama Lima, Valdes, Novas Calvo, Cabrera Infante, and Sarduy, among others. Films by Guitiérrez Alea, Vega, Solas, and Tabio, among others.


      • SPAN 352 - Voces caribeñas

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4

        A multi-genre study of artistic and cultural representations from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, with special emphasis on the resultant impact on the U.S. Caribbean diaspora. Viewed as a collage of Caribbean "voices," this course examines artistic works that reflect a sense of Spanish-Caribbean identity. Students analyze diverse examples from prose, poetry, film, music, and the plastic arts, as well as non-fiction discourses.


      • SPAN 354 - Spanish-American Theater: 20th Century to the Present

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and alternate years

        This course provides a panoramic view of the theatrical traditions that have emerged in Spanish-American theater, beginning with the independent theater movement of the 1930s and concluding with the most recent trends in theatrical practices. In particular, the plays are studied as vehicles that reveal how theater practitioners engaged with their historical and cultural contexts in aesthetic terms. Therefore, the focus is also on the plays as performative texts. In order to develop this objective, students are expected to read, discuss, and analyze the dramatic texts, as well as perform scenes from the plays. This course includes works from playwrights such us Arlt, Triana, Diaz, Gambaro, Carballido, Castellanos, and Berman, among others. In addition, we study the political and aesthetic theories of theater developed by Enrique Buenaventura and Augusto Boal.


      • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 398A-01: Poetry and the Politics of Immigration (3). Corequisite: SPAN 200. Prerequisites: SPAN 240 and 275. This seminar explores the politics of immigration through poetry through literary-centered cultural studies. All students must also register for the one-credit, service-learning practicum to take place in a local juvenile facility housing undocumented, unaccompanied youth. In class on campus, we perform and debate close readings of poetry written about, from, and beyond immigrant experiences. In class at the correctional facility, we join incarcerated juvenile Latino immigrants in an inside-out poetry workshop pairing each W&L student with an incarcerated student in a term-long literary partnership within our greater collaboration as a transinstitutional, transnational, and transcultural community. We enhance our ability to conceive, understand, analyze, and discuss the complexities of immigration, while also developing our abilities to read, write, speak, and listen in Spanish. (HL) Michelson


    • One course on literature of Spain chosen from
      • SPAN 312 - Medieval Spanish Cultures in Context

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring

        Spring Term Abroad course. Muslims, Jews, and Christians co-existed for eight-hundred years on the Iberian Peninsula. This course examines these diverse cultures through the texts (literary, historical, religious, and philosophical), the art, and the architecture from the period prior to the arrival of the Arabs in 711, up to and beyond the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. The objective of the course is to glean from the remnants of the experience of their co-existence insights into their distinctive characteristics and how they understood and influenced each other.


      • SPAN 320 - Don Quijote

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2018 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of this Early Modern novel. May include close reading and discussion of additional narrative and poetic genres of the Golden Age, as represented in or contributing to the Cervantine work


      • SPAN 322 - Spanish Golden-Age Drama

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018-2019 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of a variety of selected Golden Age dramas of the 17th century. Representative dramatists may include Calderón de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, and María de Zayas.
         


      • SPAN 323 - Golden Age Spanish Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and every third year

        A study of the comedia and the novela corta and the manner in which the secular women writers inscribe themselves within and beyond these genres. Close reading and discussion of representative works that may include the short stories and plays by María de Zayas, Ana Caro, Leonor de Meneses, Mariana de Carvajal, and Angela de Azevedo.


      • SPAN 324 - Visions of the Nation: Romanticism and the Generation of 1898

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of the contrasting identities of Spain, her land and peoples, as represented by Romanticism and the Generation of 1898. From the romantic period students read the popular and folkloric "romances" of Duque de Rivas and the works of Mariano José de Larra. Works from the more philosophical Generation of 1898 include: El árbol de la ciencia by P'o Baroja, the poetry of Antonio Machado, and various texts of Miguel de Unamuno.


      • SPAN 326 - Modern Spanish Prose Fiction

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2017 and alternate years

        The development of the Spanish novel from the late 19th century through the present day. Representative authors may include Galdos, Baroja, Unamuno, Cela, Martín Gaite, and Mayoral.


      • SPAN 328 - Contemporary Spanish Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of Spanish poetry within its historical context from Romanticism until the present day. Special emphasis is given to the generations of 1898 and 1927, the poetry of the Spanish Civil War and the Franco period. Representative authors include Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, and Gloria Fuertes.


      • SPAN 333 - El Cid in History and Legend

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018 and alternate years

        A study of the most significant portrayals of the Castilian warrior Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid (1045-1099), from his 12th-century biography Historia Roderici to the Hollywood blockbuster El Cid. Epic poems, late medieval ballads, and Renaissance drama all recreate the legendary life of El Cid. This course examines the relevant narratives in an effort to determine the heroic values and attributes recreated by authors and their audiences for nearly a thousand years.


      • SPAN 397 - Peninsular Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. The specific topic will be determined jointly according to student interest and departmental approval. Recent topics have included "The Female Voice in Hispanic Literature", "19th- and 20th-Century Spanish drama", "Women Writers of the Golden Age", and "Romanticism and the Generation of '98". May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 397A-01: Peninsular Seminar: Medieval Spanish Literature (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 220 and 275. This course studies three major works: Poema del Cid, Libro de buen amor, and La Celestina. In order to experience the widest possible sampling of medieval literary forms and authors, the course also surveys mozarabic love poetry (jarchas), Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry, Marian miracle stories, wisdom literature, pre-Renaissance love lyric, and ballads (romances). We examine the social and historical contexts of all works, the author's purpose and audience expectations and responses. The three primary texts are read in modern Castilian, while the secondary samplings are read in their original languages. (HL) Bailey.


    • One additional course in literature chosen from
      • SPAN 312 - Medieval Spanish Cultures in Context

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring

        Spring Term Abroad course. Muslims, Jews, and Christians co-existed for eight-hundred years on the Iberian Peninsula. This course examines these diverse cultures through the texts (literary, historical, religious, and philosophical), the art, and the architecture from the period prior to the arrival of the Arabs in 711, up to and beyond the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. The objective of the course is to glean from the remnants of the experience of their co-existence insights into their distinctive characteristics and how they understood and influenced each other.


      • SPAN 320 - Don Quijote

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2018 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of this Early Modern novel. May include close reading and discussion of additional narrative and poetic genres of the Golden Age, as represented in or contributing to the Cervantine work


      • SPAN 322 - Spanish Golden-Age Drama

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018-2019 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of a variety of selected Golden Age dramas of the 17th century. Representative dramatists may include Calderón de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, and María de Zayas.
         


      • SPAN 323 - Golden Age Spanish Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and every third year

        A study of the comedia and the novela corta and the manner in which the secular women writers inscribe themselves within and beyond these genres. Close reading and discussion of representative works that may include the short stories and plays by María de Zayas, Ana Caro, Leonor de Meneses, Mariana de Carvajal, and Angela de Azevedo.


      • SPAN 324 - Visions of the Nation: Romanticism and the Generation of 1898

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of the contrasting identities of Spain, her land and peoples, as represented by Romanticism and the Generation of 1898. From the romantic period students read the popular and folkloric "romances" of Duque de Rivas and the works of Mariano José de Larra. Works from the more philosophical Generation of 1898 include: El árbol de la ciencia by P'o Baroja, the poetry of Antonio Machado, and various texts of Miguel de Unamuno.


      • SPAN 326 - Modern Spanish Prose Fiction

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2017 and alternate years

        The development of the Spanish novel from the late 19th century through the present day. Representative authors may include Galdos, Baroja, Unamuno, Cela, Martín Gaite, and Mayoral.


      • SPAN 328 - Contemporary Spanish Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of Spanish poetry within its historical context from Romanticism until the present day. Special emphasis is given to the generations of 1898 and 1927, the poetry of the Spanish Civil War and the Franco period. Representative authors include Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, and Gloria Fuertes.


      • SPAN 333 - El Cid in History and Legend

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018 and alternate years

        A study of the most significant portrayals of the Castilian warrior Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid (1045-1099), from his 12th-century biography Historia Roderici to the Hollywood blockbuster El Cid. Epic poems, late medieval ballads, and Renaissance drama all recreate the legendary life of El Cid. This course examines the relevant narratives in an effort to determine the heroic values and attributes recreated by authors and their audiences for nearly a thousand years.


      • SPAN 340 - Spanish-American Short Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2016 and every third year

        A study of the Spanish-American short story with special attention to the works of Quiroga, Borges, Cortázar, and Valenzuela.


      • SPAN 341 - 20th-Century Mexican Literature: Beyond Revolution

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2017 and every third year

        This course examines the artistic reaction to the 1910 Mexican Revolution and seeks to understand its aesthetic impact on 20th-century Mexican artists from a variety of genres. Seminal works from narrative, poetry, and essay as well as the visual arts reveal how some artists promoted the ideals of the Revolution, others became disenchanted, and still others invented revolutionary styles of expression in order to convey a new cultural self-perception and worldview.


      • SPAN 342 - Spanish-American Narrative: The Boom Generation

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2019 and alternate years

        Readings in the contemporary Spanish-American narrative of the second half of the 20th century with special emphasis on the members of the "Boom" generation, such as Rulfo, Fuentes, García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Carpentier, and Puig. In addition to short narrative pieces, the readings include El Tunel (Ernesto Sábato), El Amor y Otros Demonios (García Márquez), Aura (Carlos Fuentes), Los Pasos Perdidos (Carpentier), and Casa de Los Espiritus (Allende). The class meets once a week for three hours so that we may maximize our time with each novel.


      • SPAN 343 - Spanish-American Colonial Literature

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        This course examines the Latin American Colonial period by reading the most important Spanish, Creole, and indigenous texts of the period, and by reflecting on the violent cultural dynamics that created the problematic notion of continental "America." The questions this course examines are related to how identity discourses are produced in Colonial America, and who are the main agents involved in this process. By analyzing the different sides of the Latin American colonial experience, the student will be able to critically approach many "given" paradigms that inform our understanding of the Americas and of the world.


      • SPAN 344 - Spanish-American Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Analysis of the most relevant poetic texts of Spanish-America, including U.S. Hispanic poetry, beginning with precursors of 20th-century poetry and spanning to contemporary works. Representative works include those by Octavio Paz, Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda, Nicanor Parra, Ernesto Cardenal, Raúl Zurita, among others.


      • SPAN 345 - Spanish-American Modernist Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Considered the literary movement that achieves the "linguistic independence" of Latin America from Spain, Modernismo is the first "original aesthetic" which exercises an influence on the poetic production of Europe. This course studies the movement through the poems and works by four of its principal writers: the Nicaraguan Ruben Dario, the Mexican Manuel Gutierrez Najera, the Peruvian Manuel Gonzalez Prada, and the Cuban Jose Marti. By contrasting their literature to the "paradigm of modernity" which surrounded its production, the course distinguishes the dialectics between the artists and their respective geopolitical circumstances. By analyzing the literature of writers from different regions, we visualize and distinguish the divergent modernities which emerged in Latin America during the 19th century and the diverse artistic reactions and consequences.


      • SPAN 347 - Poetry and Power

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and when departmental resources permit

        This is a course about reading. We read Spanish-American poetry on power and violence as a way of engaging and investigating the multifaceted and layered historiographies of the region. To intensify our reading, we also "read" a diversity of complementary cultural production, including paintings, murals, and music. Through these self-conscious acts of reading--that is, acts of identifying, evaluating, and critiquing form as much as content--we enhance our ability to analyze and debate ways of defining power in the Americas from within, without, and in liminal zones. Recurring motifs include sexism, racism, classism, and fascism.


      • SPAN 348 - Spanish-American Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        An examination of the role of women writers in the development of Spanish- American literary history, including U.S. Hispanic writers. Textual and cultural analysis of readings from multiple genres by authors such as Poniatowska, Ferré, Bombal, Mastretta, Gambaro, Lispector, Valenzuela, Castellanos, Cisneros, Esquivel, Peri Rossi, and Allende, among others.


      • SPAN 350 - The Cuban Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A multigenre examination of 20th-century Cuba as its own "story." Beginning with the first European account of Columbus, to insights from slaves, to finally more recent writers who question its future, the course presents the development of Cuban society as its own narrative. Major readings by Manzano, Barnet, Marti, Carpentier, Castro, Guevara, Garcia, and Hernandez Diaz, among others. Shorter anthologized works by Guillen, Lezama Lima, Valdes, Novas Calvo, Cabrera Infante, and Sarduy, among others. Films by Guitiérrez Alea, Vega, Solas, and Tabio, among others.


      • SPAN 352 - Voces caribeñas

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4

        A multi-genre study of artistic and cultural representations from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, with special emphasis on the resultant impact on the U.S. Caribbean diaspora. Viewed as a collage of Caribbean "voices," this course examines artistic works that reflect a sense of Spanish-Caribbean identity. Students analyze diverse examples from prose, poetry, film, music, and the plastic arts, as well as non-fiction discourses.


      • SPAN 354 - Spanish-American Theater: 20th Century to the Present

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and alternate years

        This course provides a panoramic view of the theatrical traditions that have emerged in Spanish-American theater, beginning with the independent theater movement of the 1930s and concluding with the most recent trends in theatrical practices. In particular, the plays are studied as vehicles that reveal how theater practitioners engaged with their historical and cultural contexts in aesthetic terms. Therefore, the focus is also on the plays as performative texts. In order to develop this objective, students are expected to read, discuss, and analyze the dramatic texts, as well as perform scenes from the plays. This course includes works from playwrights such us Arlt, Triana, Diaz, Gambaro, Carballido, Castellanos, and Berman, among others. In addition, we study the political and aesthetic theories of theater developed by Enrique Buenaventura and Augusto Boal.


      • SPAN 397 - Peninsular Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. The specific topic will be determined jointly according to student interest and departmental approval. Recent topics have included "The Female Voice in Hispanic Literature", "19th- and 20th-Century Spanish drama", "Women Writers of the Golden Age", and "Romanticism and the Generation of '98". May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 397A-01: Peninsular Seminar: Medieval Spanish Literature (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 220 and 275. This course studies three major works: Poema del Cid, Libro de buen amor, and La Celestina. In order to experience the widest possible sampling of medieval literary forms and authors, the course also surveys mozarabic love poetry (jarchas), Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry, Marian miracle stories, wisdom literature, pre-Renaissance love lyric, and ballads (romances). We examine the social and historical contexts of all works, the author's purpose and audience expectations and responses. The three primary texts are read in modern Castilian, while the secondary samplings are read in their original languages. (HL) Bailey.


      • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 398A-01: Poetry and the Politics of Immigration (3). Corequisite: SPAN 200. Prerequisites: SPAN 240 and 275. This seminar explores the politics of immigration through poetry through literary-centered cultural studies. All students must also register for the one-credit, service-learning practicum to take place in a local juvenile facility housing undocumented, unaccompanied youth. In class on campus, we perform and debate close readings of poetry written about, from, and beyond immigrant experiences. In class at the correctional facility, we join incarcerated juvenile Latino immigrants in an inside-out poetry workshop pairing each W&L student with an incarcerated student in a term-long literary partnership within our greater collaboration as a transinstitutional, transnational, and transcultural community. We enhance our ability to conceive, understand, analyze, and discuss the complexities of immigration, while also developing our abilities to read, write, speak, and listen in Spanish. (HL) Michelson


    • Two additional Spanish courses numbered 300 or above
  5. Completion of one of the following sequences:
  6. a. Completion of the intermediate level or its equivalent in French (FREN 162, 164, or 172), FREN 261, and one course chosen from FREN 273, 280, 281, 282, 283 or 285.

    b. PORT 163 and two 200-level Portuguese courses

    c. ITAL 163 and two 200-level Italian courses

  7. Study Abroad
  8. The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one semester, and preferably one academic year, in a Spanish-speaking country.

Spanish major leading to BA degree

A major in Spanish leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires demonstrated proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and completion of at least 31 credits as follows:

  1. SPAN 220, 240, and 275
  2. Two additional 200-level courses in Spanish. The department head may approve any one Romance language literature, film, or culture course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.
  3. Five Spanish courses numbered 300 or above, as follows.
    1. One course on literature of Spanish America chosen from SPAN 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 347, 348, 350, 352, 354, and 398
    2. One course on literature of Spain chosen from SPAN 312, 320, 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 333, and 397
    3. One additional course in literature chosen from SPAN 312, 320, 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 333, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 347, 348, 350, 352, 354, 397, and 398
    4. Two additional Spanish courses numbered 300 or above.

The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one semester, and preferably one academic year, in a Spanish-speaking country.

The department strongly encourages majors to include at least one course each from the following areas: Spanish-American, Medieval or Renaissance Peninsular (312, 320, 322 333, and, when appropriate, 397) and Modern Peninsular (324, 326, 328 and, when appropriate, 397).

Students who plan work in Spanish and another Romance language are advised to refer to the description of the Romance languages major.

  1. Required courses:
  2. Two additional 200-level courses in Spanish
  3. The department head may approve any one Romance language literature, film, or culture course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward this requirement.

  4. Five Spanish courses numbered 300 or above, as follows.
    • One course on literature of Spanish America chosen from
      • SPAN 340 - Spanish-American Short Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2016 and every third year

        A study of the Spanish-American short story with special attention to the works of Quiroga, Borges, Cortázar, and Valenzuela.


      • SPAN 341 - 20th-Century Mexican Literature: Beyond Revolution

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2017 and every third year

        This course examines the artistic reaction to the 1910 Mexican Revolution and seeks to understand its aesthetic impact on 20th-century Mexican artists from a variety of genres. Seminal works from narrative, poetry, and essay as well as the visual arts reveal how some artists promoted the ideals of the Revolution, others became disenchanted, and still others invented revolutionary styles of expression in order to convey a new cultural self-perception and worldview.


      • SPAN 342 - Spanish-American Narrative: The Boom Generation

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2019 and alternate years

        Readings in the contemporary Spanish-American narrative of the second half of the 20th century with special emphasis on the members of the "Boom" generation, such as Rulfo, Fuentes, García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Carpentier, and Puig. In addition to short narrative pieces, the readings include El Tunel (Ernesto Sábato), El Amor y Otros Demonios (García Márquez), Aura (Carlos Fuentes), Los Pasos Perdidos (Carpentier), and Casa de Los Espiritus (Allende). The class meets once a week for three hours so that we may maximize our time with each novel.


      • SPAN 343 - Spanish-American Colonial Literature

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        This course examines the Latin American Colonial period by reading the most important Spanish, Creole, and indigenous texts of the period, and by reflecting on the violent cultural dynamics that created the problematic notion of continental "America." The questions this course examines are related to how identity discourses are produced in Colonial America, and who are the main agents involved in this process. By analyzing the different sides of the Latin American colonial experience, the student will be able to critically approach many "given" paradigms that inform our understanding of the Americas and of the world.


      • SPAN 344 - Spanish-American Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Analysis of the most relevant poetic texts of Spanish-America, including U.S. Hispanic poetry, beginning with precursors of 20th-century poetry and spanning to contemporary works. Representative works include those by Octavio Paz, Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda, Nicanor Parra, Ernesto Cardenal, Raúl Zurita, among others.


      • SPAN 345 - Spanish-American Modernist Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Considered the literary movement that achieves the "linguistic independence" of Latin America from Spain, Modernismo is the first "original aesthetic" which exercises an influence on the poetic production of Europe. This course studies the movement through the poems and works by four of its principal writers: the Nicaraguan Ruben Dario, the Mexican Manuel Gutierrez Najera, the Peruvian Manuel Gonzalez Prada, and the Cuban Jose Marti. By contrasting their literature to the "paradigm of modernity" which surrounded its production, the course distinguishes the dialectics between the artists and their respective geopolitical circumstances. By analyzing the literature of writers from different regions, we visualize and distinguish the divergent modernities which emerged in Latin America during the 19th century and the diverse artistic reactions and consequences.


      • SPAN 347 - Poetry and Power

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and when departmental resources permit

        This is a course about reading. We read Spanish-American poetry on power and violence as a way of engaging and investigating the multifaceted and layered historiographies of the region. To intensify our reading, we also "read" a diversity of complementary cultural production, including paintings, murals, and music. Through these self-conscious acts of reading--that is, acts of identifying, evaluating, and critiquing form as much as content--we enhance our ability to analyze and debate ways of defining power in the Americas from within, without, and in liminal zones. Recurring motifs include sexism, racism, classism, and fascism.


      • SPAN 348 - Spanish-American Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        An examination of the role of women writers in the development of Spanish- American literary history, including U.S. Hispanic writers. Textual and cultural analysis of readings from multiple genres by authors such as Poniatowska, Ferré, Bombal, Mastretta, Gambaro, Lispector, Valenzuela, Castellanos, Cisneros, Esquivel, Peri Rossi, and Allende, among others.


      • SPAN 350 - The Cuban Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A multigenre examination of 20th-century Cuba as its own "story." Beginning with the first European account of Columbus, to insights from slaves, to finally more recent writers who question its future, the course presents the development of Cuban society as its own narrative. Major readings by Manzano, Barnet, Marti, Carpentier, Castro, Guevara, Garcia, and Hernandez Diaz, among others. Shorter anthologized works by Guillen, Lezama Lima, Valdes, Novas Calvo, Cabrera Infante, and Sarduy, among others. Films by Guitiérrez Alea, Vega, Solas, and Tabio, among others.


      • SPAN 352 - Voces caribeñas

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4

        A multi-genre study of artistic and cultural representations from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, with special emphasis on the resultant impact on the U.S. Caribbean diaspora. Viewed as a collage of Caribbean "voices," this course examines artistic works that reflect a sense of Spanish-Caribbean identity. Students analyze diverse examples from prose, poetry, film, music, and the plastic arts, as well as non-fiction discourses.


      • SPAN 354 - Spanish-American Theater: 20th Century to the Present

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and alternate years

        This course provides a panoramic view of the theatrical traditions that have emerged in Spanish-American theater, beginning with the independent theater movement of the 1930s and concluding with the most recent trends in theatrical practices. In particular, the plays are studied as vehicles that reveal how theater practitioners engaged with their historical and cultural contexts in aesthetic terms. Therefore, the focus is also on the plays as performative texts. In order to develop this objective, students are expected to read, discuss, and analyze the dramatic texts, as well as perform scenes from the plays. This course includes works from playwrights such us Arlt, Triana, Diaz, Gambaro, Carballido, Castellanos, and Berman, among others. In addition, we study the political and aesthetic theories of theater developed by Enrique Buenaventura and Augusto Boal.


      • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 398A-01: Poetry and the Politics of Immigration (3). Corequisite: SPAN 200. Prerequisites: SPAN 240 and 275. This seminar explores the politics of immigration through poetry through literary-centered cultural studies. All students must also register for the one-credit, service-learning practicum to take place in a local juvenile facility housing undocumented, unaccompanied youth. In class on campus, we perform and debate close readings of poetry written about, from, and beyond immigrant experiences. In class at the correctional facility, we join incarcerated juvenile Latino immigrants in an inside-out poetry workshop pairing each W&L student with an incarcerated student in a term-long literary partnership within our greater collaboration as a transinstitutional, transnational, and transcultural community. We enhance our ability to conceive, understand, analyze, and discuss the complexities of immigration, while also developing our abilities to read, write, speak, and listen in Spanish. (HL) Michelson


    • One course on literature of Spain chosen from
      • SPAN 312 - Medieval Spanish Cultures in Context

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring

        Spring Term Abroad course. Muslims, Jews, and Christians co-existed for eight-hundred years on the Iberian Peninsula. This course examines these diverse cultures through the texts (literary, historical, religious, and philosophical), the art, and the architecture from the period prior to the arrival of the Arabs in 711, up to and beyond the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. The objective of the course is to glean from the remnants of the experience of their co-existence insights into their distinctive characteristics and how they understood and influenced each other.


      • SPAN 320 - Don Quijote

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2018 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of this Early Modern novel. May include close reading and discussion of additional narrative and poetic genres of the Golden Age, as represented in or contributing to the Cervantine work


      • SPAN 322 - Spanish Golden-Age Drama

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018-2019 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of a variety of selected Golden Age dramas of the 17th century. Representative dramatists may include Calderón de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, and María de Zayas.
         


      • SPAN 323 - Golden Age Spanish Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and every third year

        A study of the comedia and the novela corta and the manner in which the secular women writers inscribe themselves within and beyond these genres. Close reading and discussion of representative works that may include the short stories and plays by María de Zayas, Ana Caro, Leonor de Meneses, Mariana de Carvajal, and Angela de Azevedo.


      • SPAN 324 - Visions of the Nation: Romanticism and the Generation of 1898

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of the contrasting identities of Spain, her land and peoples, as represented by Romanticism and the Generation of 1898. From the romantic period students read the popular and folkloric "romances" of Duque de Rivas and the works of Mariano José de Larra. Works from the more philosophical Generation of 1898 include: El árbol de la ciencia by P'o Baroja, the poetry of Antonio Machado, and various texts of Miguel de Unamuno.


      • SPAN 326 - Modern Spanish Prose Fiction

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2017 and alternate years

        The development of the Spanish novel from the late 19th century through the present day. Representative authors may include Galdos, Baroja, Unamuno, Cela, Martín Gaite, and Mayoral.


      • SPAN 328 - Contemporary Spanish Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of Spanish poetry within its historical context from Romanticism until the present day. Special emphasis is given to the generations of 1898 and 1927, the poetry of the Spanish Civil War and the Franco period. Representative authors include Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, and Gloria Fuertes.


      • SPAN 333 - El Cid in History and Legend

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018 and alternate years

        A study of the most significant portrayals of the Castilian warrior Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid (1045-1099), from his 12th-century biography Historia Roderici to the Hollywood blockbuster El Cid. Epic poems, late medieval ballads, and Renaissance drama all recreate the legendary life of El Cid. This course examines the relevant narratives in an effort to determine the heroic values and attributes recreated by authors and their audiences for nearly a thousand years.


      • SPAN 397 - Peninsular Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. The specific topic will be determined jointly according to student interest and departmental approval. Recent topics have included "The Female Voice in Hispanic Literature", "19th- and 20th-Century Spanish drama", "Women Writers of the Golden Age", and "Romanticism and the Generation of '98". May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 397A-01: Peninsular Seminar: Medieval Spanish Literature (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 220 and 275. This course studies three major works: Poema del Cid, Libro de buen amor, and La Celestina. In order to experience the widest possible sampling of medieval literary forms and authors, the course also surveys mozarabic love poetry (jarchas), Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry, Marian miracle stories, wisdom literature, pre-Renaissance love lyric, and ballads (romances). We examine the social and historical contexts of all works, the author's purpose and audience expectations and responses. The three primary texts are read in modern Castilian, while the secondary samplings are read in their original languages. (HL) Bailey.


    • One additional course in literature chosen from:
      • SPAN 312 - Medieval Spanish Cultures in Context

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring

        Spring Term Abroad course. Muslims, Jews, and Christians co-existed for eight-hundred years on the Iberian Peninsula. This course examines these diverse cultures through the texts (literary, historical, religious, and philosophical), the art, and the architecture from the period prior to the arrival of the Arabs in 711, up to and beyond the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. The objective of the course is to glean from the remnants of the experience of their co-existence insights into their distinctive characteristics and how they understood and influenced each other.


      • SPAN 320 - Don Quijote

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2018 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of this Early Modern novel. May include close reading and discussion of additional narrative and poetic genres of the Golden Age, as represented in or contributing to the Cervantine work


      • SPAN 322 - Spanish Golden-Age Drama

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018-2019 and every third year

        Close reading and discussion of a variety of selected Golden Age dramas of the 17th century. Representative dramatists may include Calderón de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, and María de Zayas.
         


      • SPAN 323 - Golden Age Spanish Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and every third year

        A study of the comedia and the novela corta and the manner in which the secular women writers inscribe themselves within and beyond these genres. Close reading and discussion of representative works that may include the short stories and plays by María de Zayas, Ana Caro, Leonor de Meneses, Mariana de Carvajal, and Angela de Azevedo.


      • SPAN 324 - Visions of the Nation: Romanticism and the Generation of 1898

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of the contrasting identities of Spain, her land and peoples, as represented by Romanticism and the Generation of 1898. From the romantic period students read the popular and folkloric "romances" of Duque de Rivas and the works of Mariano José de Larra. Works from the more philosophical Generation of 1898 include: El árbol de la ciencia by P'o Baroja, the poetry of Antonio Machado, and various texts of Miguel de Unamuno.


      • SPAN 326 - Modern Spanish Prose Fiction

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2017 and alternate years

        The development of the Spanish novel from the late 19th century through the present day. Representative authors may include Galdos, Baroja, Unamuno, Cela, Martín Gaite, and Mayoral.


      • SPAN 328 - Contemporary Spanish Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A study of Spanish poetry within its historical context from Romanticism until the present day. Special emphasis is given to the generations of 1898 and 1927, the poetry of the Spanish Civil War and the Franco period. Representative authors include Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, and Gloria Fuertes.


      • SPAN 333 - El Cid in History and Legend

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: 2018 and alternate years

        A study of the most significant portrayals of the Castilian warrior Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid (1045-1099), from his 12th-century biography Historia Roderici to the Hollywood blockbuster El Cid. Epic poems, late medieval ballads, and Renaissance drama all recreate the legendary life of El Cid. This course examines the relevant narratives in an effort to determine the heroic values and attributes recreated by authors and their audiences for nearly a thousand years.


      • SPAN 340 - Spanish-American Short Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2016 and every third year

        A study of the Spanish-American short story with special attention to the works of Quiroga, Borges, Cortázar, and Valenzuela.


      • SPAN 341 - 20th-Century Mexican Literature: Beyond Revolution

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2017 and every third year

        This course examines the artistic reaction to the 1910 Mexican Revolution and seeks to understand its aesthetic impact on 20th-century Mexican artists from a variety of genres. Seminal works from narrative, poetry, and essay as well as the visual arts reveal how some artists promoted the ideals of the Revolution, others became disenchanted, and still others invented revolutionary styles of expression in order to convey a new cultural self-perception and worldview.


      • SPAN 342 - Spanish-American Narrative: The Boom Generation

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Winter 2019 and alternate years

        Readings in the contemporary Spanish-American narrative of the second half of the 20th century with special emphasis on the members of the "Boom" generation, such as Rulfo, Fuentes, García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Carpentier, and Puig. In addition to short narrative pieces, the readings include El Tunel (Ernesto Sábato), El Amor y Otros Demonios (García Márquez), Aura (Carlos Fuentes), Los Pasos Perdidos (Carpentier), and Casa de Los Espiritus (Allende). The class meets once a week for three hours so that we may maximize our time with each novel.


      • SPAN 343 - Spanish-American Colonial Literature

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        This course examines the Latin American Colonial period by reading the most important Spanish, Creole, and indigenous texts of the period, and by reflecting on the violent cultural dynamics that created the problematic notion of continental "America." The questions this course examines are related to how identity discourses are produced in Colonial America, and who are the main agents involved in this process. By analyzing the different sides of the Latin American colonial experience, the student will be able to critically approach many "given" paradigms that inform our understanding of the Americas and of the world.


      • SPAN 344 - Spanish-American Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Analysis of the most relevant poetic texts of Spanish-America, including U.S. Hispanic poetry, beginning with precursors of 20th-century poetry and spanning to contemporary works. Representative works include those by Octavio Paz, Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda, Nicanor Parra, Ernesto Cardenal, Raúl Zurita, among others.


      • SPAN 345 - Spanish-American Modernist Poetry

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        Considered the literary movement that achieves the "linguistic independence" of Latin America from Spain, Modernismo is the first "original aesthetic" which exercises an influence on the poetic production of Europe. This course studies the movement through the poems and works by four of its principal writers: the Nicaraguan Ruben Dario, the Mexican Manuel Gutierrez Najera, the Peruvian Manuel Gonzalez Prada, and the Cuban Jose Marti. By contrasting their literature to the "paradigm of modernity" which surrounded its production, the course distinguishes the dialectics between the artists and their respective geopolitical circumstances. By analyzing the literature of writers from different regions, we visualize and distinguish the divergent modernities which emerged in Latin America during the 19th century and the diverse artistic reactions and consequences.


      • SPAN 347 - Poetry and Power

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and when departmental resources permit

        This is a course about reading. We read Spanish-American poetry on power and violence as a way of engaging and investigating the multifaceted and layered historiographies of the region. To intensify our reading, we also "read" a diversity of complementary cultural production, including paintings, murals, and music. Through these self-conscious acts of reading--that is, acts of identifying, evaluating, and critiquing form as much as content--we enhance our ability to analyze and debate ways of defining power in the Americas from within, without, and in liminal zones. Recurring motifs include sexism, racism, classism, and fascism.


      • SPAN 348 - Spanish-American Women Writers

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        An examination of the role of women writers in the development of Spanish- American literary history, including U.S. Hispanic writers. Textual and cultural analysis of readings from multiple genres by authors such as Poniatowska, Ferré, Bombal, Mastretta, Gambaro, Lispector, Valenzuela, Castellanos, Cisneros, Esquivel, Peri Rossi, and Allende, among others.


      • SPAN 350 - The Cuban Story

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3

        A multigenre examination of 20th-century Cuba as its own "story." Beginning with the first European account of Columbus, to insights from slaves, to finally more recent writers who question its future, the course presents the development of Cuban society as its own narrative. Major readings by Manzano, Barnet, Marti, Carpentier, Castro, Guevara, Garcia, and Hernandez Diaz, among others. Shorter anthologized works by Guillen, Lezama Lima, Valdes, Novas Calvo, Cabrera Infante, and Sarduy, among others. Films by Guitiérrez Alea, Vega, Solas, and Tabio, among others.


      • SPAN 352 - Voces caribeñas

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4

        A multi-genre study of artistic and cultural representations from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, with special emphasis on the resultant impact on the U.S. Caribbean diaspora. Viewed as a collage of Caribbean "voices," this course examines artistic works that reflect a sense of Spanish-Caribbean identity. Students analyze diverse examples from prose, poetry, film, music, and the plastic arts, as well as non-fiction discourses.


      • SPAN 354 - Spanish-American Theater: 20th Century to the Present

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall 2017 and alternate years

        This course provides a panoramic view of the theatrical traditions that have emerged in Spanish-American theater, beginning with the independent theater movement of the 1930s and concluding with the most recent trends in theatrical practices. In particular, the plays are studied as vehicles that reveal how theater practitioners engaged with their historical and cultural contexts in aesthetic terms. Therefore, the focus is also on the plays as performative texts. In order to develop this objective, students are expected to read, discuss, and analyze the dramatic texts, as well as perform scenes from the plays. This course includes works from playwrights such us Arlt, Triana, Diaz, Gambaro, Carballido, Castellanos, and Berman, among others. In addition, we study the political and aesthetic theories of theater developed by Enrique Buenaventura and Augusto Boal.


      • SPAN 397 - Peninsular Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. The specific topic will be determined jointly according to student interest and departmental approval. Recent topics have included "The Female Voice in Hispanic Literature", "19th- and 20th-Century Spanish drama", "Women Writers of the Golden Age", and "Romanticism and the Generation of '98". May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 397A-01: Peninsular Seminar: Medieval Spanish Literature (3). Prerequisites: SPAN 220 and 275. This course studies three major works: Poema del Cid, Libro de buen amor, and La Celestina. In order to experience the widest possible sampling of medieval literary forms and authors, the course also surveys mozarabic love poetry (jarchas), Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry, Marian miracle stories, wisdom literature, pre-Renaissance love lyric, and ballads (romances). We examine the social and historical contexts of all works, the author's purpose and audience expectations and responses. The three primary texts are read in modern Castilian, while the secondary samplings are read in their original languages. (HL) Bailey.


      • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

        A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2016, SPAN 398A-01: Poetry and the Politics of Immigration (3). Corequisite: SPAN 200. Prerequisites: SPAN 240 and 275. This seminar explores the politics of immigration through poetry through literary-centered cultural studies. All students must also register for the one-credit, service-learning practicum to take place in a local juvenile facility housing undocumented, unaccompanied youth. In class on campus, we perform and debate close readings of poetry written about, from, and beyond immigrant experiences. In class at the correctional facility, we join incarcerated juvenile Latino immigrants in an inside-out poetry workshop pairing each W&L student with an incarcerated student in a term-long literary partnership within our greater collaboration as a transinstitutional, transnational, and transcultural community. We enhance our ability to conceive, understand, analyze, and discuss the complexities of immigration, while also developing our abilities to read, write, speak, and listen in Spanish. (HL) Michelson


    • Two additional Spanish courses numbered 300 or above
  5. Study abroad
  6. The department strongly recommends a study-abroad experience of at least one semester, and preferably one academic year, in a Spanish-speaking country.

French minor

A minor in French requires demonstrated proficiency in the French language, an in-depth knowledge of French culture, and completion of at least 21 credits in seven courses. A student may not complete both a minor in French and a major in French. In meeting the requirements of this discipline-based minor, a student may not use more than nine credits also used to meet the requirements of another major or minor. Course distribution for the French minor must include:

a. FREN 261, 283
b. One course in civilization: FREN 280, 281, or 282
c. At least two courses in 300-level French
d. Two additional courses in French numbered 200 or above. The department head may authorize one 200-level Romance-language literature course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward the requirements of the minor.

The department strongly recommends FREN 212 as a study abroad experience. Students may count a total of three relevant French courses from study abroad in a French-speaking country towards the French minor.

  1. Required courses:
    • FREN 261 - Conversation et composition: Cours avancé

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

      Further development of conversational skills and beginning work in free composition, with systematic grammar review and word study in various relevant cultural contexts.


    • FREN 283 - Histoire des idées

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter 2017

      This course retraces the evolution of thought in France across centuries through the examination of intellectual, cultural and artistic movements. Readings, discussions and paper in French for further development of communication skills.


  2. Take one course in civilization:
    • FREN 280 - Civilisation et culture francophones

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization in francophone countries. Topics may include: contemporary Africa, pre-colonial Africa, West Indian history and culture, and Canadian contemporary issues. Readings, discussion and papers in French further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 281 - Civilisation et culture françaises: Traditions et changements

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter

      A study of significant aspects of French culture and civilization, seen in a diachronic perspective. Emphasis on economic, sociological and historical changes that shaped present-day institutions and national identity. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.


    • or
    • FREN 282 - Civilisation et culture françaises: La France d'aujourd'hui

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall

      A study of modern France. This course examines the economic, political, social and intellectual issues which shape contemporary French life. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.

      Fall 2016, FREN 282-01: Civilisation et culture françaises: Les grands dossiers de la presse (3). Prerequisites: FREN 162, 164 or instructor consent. A study of contemporary France through the issues that are being raised in the press. This course examines the economic, social, societal, and political issues that currently shape the lives of French people. We use recent articles in the written press, newscasts, documentaries, interviews and films as a basis for discussion and reflection. Readings, discussions, and papers in French for further development of communication skills. (HU). Frégnac-Clave.


  3. At least two courses in 300-level French
  4. Two additional courses in French numbered 200 or above.
  5. The department head may authorize one 200-level Romance-language literature course taught in English by Romance Languages faculty toward the requirements of the minor.