George P. Carras Senior Research Professor (Classical studies, Religion)

George P. Carras



D.Phil. - Oxford - Oriental / Jewish Studies, Classical Studies, Religion
MA - Manchester - New Testament, Biblical/Literary Criticism
BA (Honors) - UC Berkeley - Classics, Ancient History, Religion, Jewish Studies
MA (Hon.) - Oxford - Biblical Studies, Theology
Post-Doctoral, Research Fellow, UC Berkeley


Classical Studies:
Flavius Josephus, Flavian Rome, Moral World of Antiquity, Plutarch, his World and the "Moralia", Josephus and Paul as Two Diaspora Jews

The Jewish Paul; Lukan Studies, Intertextuality


Classical Studies:
Moral World of Antiquity (Greek, Roman, Jewish, early Christian), Epictetus - Life and Writings and other Stoics, The Religions of Antiquity, World of Judaism and Hellenism, Philo of Alexandria, Flavius Josephus

Inside Matthew's World, Luke - Acts: Legacies of Israel, Paul and the World of the Judaism,
The Moral Vision of the New Testament, Voices of Hellenistic Jewry - Philo, Josephus, Paul

Selected Publications

(Classical Studies)


  • Two Diaspora Jews: Josephus and Paul - A Historical, Social and Theological Comparison of Hellenistic Jewry, (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums), Leiden: Brill, (in progress)
  • Paul, Josephus and Judaism: The Shared Judaism of Paul and Josephus (2012, E-version, Oxford)


  • "Dependence, Paraphrase or Common Tradition in Philo's Hypothetica and Josephus' Contra Apionem," Studia Philonica Annual 5 (1993), 24-47
  • "Philo's Hypothetica - Josephus' Contra Apionem and the Question of Sources" in D. Lull (ed.), 1990 Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers, Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990, 431-450

Book Reviews:

  • Jan Bremmer and Marco Formisano,  Perpetua's Passions, Oxford University Press, 2012; Religious Studies Review, June 2013, Vol. 39 Issue 2, 105-106
  • Thomas J. Heffernan, The Passion of Perpetua and Felicity, Oxford University Press, 2012; Religious Studies Review, June 2013, Vol. 39 Issue 2, 106
  • Karl-Gustav Sandelin, Attraction and Danger of Alien Religion, (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 290) Mohr Siebeck, 2012; Journal for the Study of Judaism, 2014, Vol. 45 Issue 3, 432-434

Work in Progress:

  • "Pre-Rabbinic Echoes in Josephus - Diaspora Jewish Summary of the Law - Against Apion (AgAp) 2.190-219"
  • "Josephus' Intellectual Flavian Milieu - Pliny, Quintilian, Tacitus, Martial, Dio Chrysostom, Epictetus, and Plutarch? - Various Examples Exposed"
  • "Reading Josephus in a Roman Context - Against Apion 2.190-219 and Antiquities 3-4 Once More"
  • "Torah Observance in Diaspora Judaism & in Josephus, Philo, Pseudo Phocylides Sentences"



  • Putting Paul in his Place: Inheritor, Internal Critic and Transformer of Diaspora Judaism, Oxford University Press: New York, (in preparation)


  • "Observant Jews in the Story of Luke and Acts: Paul, Jesus and Other Jews" in J. Verheyden (ed.), The Unity of Luke-Acts, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1999, 693-708
  • "Luke and the OT: Intertextuality between Numbers 15.22-31 & Luke 23.34" in C.M. Tuckett (ed.), The Scriptures in the Gospels, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1997, 605-616
  • "Romans 2.1-29: A Dialogue on Jewish Ideals," Biblica 73 1992, 183-207
  • "Jewish Ethics and Gentile Converts: Some Remarks on 1 Thess. 4.3-8" in R.F. Collins (ed.), The Thessalonian Correspondence, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1990, 306-315

Awards, Honors, Affiliations (recent)

  • Fellow, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Charlottesville, Va – 2013-15
  • Associate Faculty, Oriental Studies, University of Oxford, January – July, 2013
  • Visiting Fellow, Mansfield College, University of Oxford, January – July, 2013
  • Visiting Scholar, Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, University of Oxford, January – June, 2013
  • Research Visitor and Associate, Ioannou Centre for Classical and Byzantine Studies, Faculty of Classics, University of Oxford, 2011-2015
  • Fellow – Scholar, CREOR (Centre for Research on Religion), Faculty of Religious Studies, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2007-