MRST Major Requirements

2017 - 2018 Catalog

Medieval and Renaissance Studies major leading to BA degree

A major in Medieval and Renaissance Studies leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 33 credits as follows:

1. MRST 110, 110A, or one of the following courses: ARTH 101, 102; CLAS 201, 205, 208, 210, 224; ENGL 240, 242, 250, 252; FILM 255; GERM 318; HIST 100, 101, 170; LIT 203, 218, 219; MUS 201; REL 101, 102, 105, 106, 108, 131, 132; SPAN 210; THTR 210; or, when appropriate, ARTH 180; CLAS 180; ENGL 299; FILM 195, 196; FREN 281, 283, 285; HIST 180, 195; LIT 180, 295; REL 180; SPAN 211, 220; THTR 121, 180; WRIT 100

2. 27 additional credits chosen from courses in the following four areas. Majors must complete four courses in one area, two courses in each of two other areas, and one course in the fourth area.

History and History of Science: CLAS 224; HIST 100, 101, 170, 201, 202, 203, 204, 217, 219, 305, 306, 307; PHYS 150; SPAN 333, or, when appropriate, HIST 180, 195, 229, 395, 403; MRST 395, 403; PHYS 403; ROML 295

Literature: CLAS 180, 201, 203, 205, 208, 215; ENGL 240, 242, 250, 252, 311, 312, 313, 316, 319, 320, 326, 330, FREN 281; GERM 318; LATN 327; LIT 203, 218, 219; SPAN 210, 211, 220, 312, 320, 322, 323, 333; or, when appropriate, ENGL 299, 392, 394, 403; FREN 341, 403; ITAL 403; LIT 180, 295; MRST 395, 403; ROML 295; SPAN 397, 403

History of Ideas: ARTH 385; CLAS 200, 204, 210, 221; FREN 341; HIST 200, 306, 307; PHIL 110, 221, 222; REL 101, 102, 105, 106, 108, 131, 132, 215, 216, 219, 225, 250, 260, 283, 284, 350; or, when appropriate, FREN 283, 285; PHIL 180, 195; 395, 403; MRST 395, 403; POL 396, 403; REL 180, 403; ROML 295

Fine Arts: FILM 255; ARTH 101, 102, 253, 254, 255, 256, 350, 354, 355, 384, MUS 201; THTR 210, 341, or, when appropriate, FILM 195, 196; ARTH 180, 394, 403; MUS 423; MRST 395, 403; ROML 295; THTR 121, 180

3. MRST 403, 473 or 493 (3-3). A directed study or thesis in another discipline may be used to meet this requirement if approved in advance by the MRST Advisory Committee through its chair.

  1. Choose one course
    • MRST 110 - Medieval and Renaissance Culture (or MRST 110A)
      FDROffered as 110A when HL; or as 110 when HU; depending on topic
      Credits3

      An introduction to the interdisciplinary study of the Medieval and Renaissance periods through the study of a particular topic. Recent studies: The Crusades, Monasticism, Chivalry, Elizabethan England, the Birth of Italian Literature, Pilgrimage, and European Encounters with Islam. Offered as 110A when HL; or as 110 when HU; depending on topic.

      Fall 2017, MRST 110-01: The Age of Elizabeth: Politics, Personalities, Faith and Culture (3). We study the 45-year reign of Elizabeth I through a variety of lenses in order to develop a complex understanding of this fascinating and formative period of English history. We look at the politics (the war with Spain, marriage negotiations, internal factions); the personalities (Elizabeth herself, Mary Stuart, key courtiers, suitors, and councilors); the religious controversies (the Elizabethan Settlement, the transition from Catholicism, the rise of Puritanism); and the rich cultural heritage (popular theater, sonnet sequences, portraiture). (HU) Dobin.


    • ARTH 101 - Survey of Western Art: Ancient to Medieval
      FDRHA
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year and sophomore standing or instructor consent
      FacultyBent

      Chronological survey of Western art from the Paleolithic Age through the Middle Ages in Italy and Northern Europe. Examination of cultural and stylistic influences in the art and architecture of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Consideration of distinct interests of Early Christian, Byzantine, and Medieval Europe. Focus on major monuments and influential images produced up to circa 1400.


    • ARTH 102 - Survey of Western Art: Renaissance to the Present
      FDRHA
      Credits3
      FacultyKing, Lepage

      Chronological survey of Western art from the Renaissance through the present. Topics include the Renaissance, from its cultural and stylistic origins through the Mannerist movement; the Baroque and Rococo; the Neoclassical reaction; Romanticism and Naturalism; the Barbizon School and Realism; Impressionism and its aftermath; Fauvism, Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop, Minimalism, and the Postmodern reaction to Modernism.


    • CLAS 201 - Classical Mythology
      FDRHL
      Credits3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring
      FacultyCrotty

      An introduction to the study of Greek mythology, with an emphasis on the primary sources. The myths are presented in their historical, religious, and political contexts. The course also includes an introduction to several major theories of myth, and uses comparative materials drawn from contemporary society and media.


    • CLAS 205 - Reading Rome: A Survey of Latin Literature
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      FacultyDance

      The course offers a survey of influential works composed in Latin between the 3rd century BCE and the 2nd century CE. Alongside poems, histories, and philosophical writings that were originally conceived of as literary projects, we also examine plays, military chronicles, speeches, and letters, all of which come down to the present as "literature" but may not have been created as such. The boundaries of "literature" is an ongoing topic of inquiry throughout the term. Students explore the literary traditions represented in the readings and consider their impact on other traditions, with the bulk of class sessions spent discussing the significance of the literary works and improving our knowledge of the contexts--historical and literary--in which they were composed.


    • CLAS 208 - The Classical Epic Tradition
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      FacultyCrotty

      In this course, we read some of the most famous stories of the Western world, from the Iliad and the Odyssey, to Milton's Paradise Lost and Joyce's Ulysses, via Virgil's Aeneid and Lucan's Civil War. All of these works are epic narratives, each presenting a different concept of the hero, and yet, at the same time, participating in a coherent, ongoing, and unfinished tradition. Questions explored include: the problematic nature of the hero, the relation between poetry and violence, the nature of literary tradition.


    • CLAS 210 - Sex, Gender and Power in Ancient Literature
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      What does it mean to be a woman or a man and what power dynamic exists between the two genders? Definitions of gender and gender roles are not a modern phenomenon but have their origins in antiquity. Both literary and visual sources reveal to us the constant puzzling over issues of gender that preoccupied the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this course, we examine sources from various genres and media for example, philosophy, epic, drama, poetry, history, painting, and sculpture in an attempt to understand the various ways the Greeks and Romans conceived of gender. Readings include primary sources from antiquity (e.g., Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides, Plato, Terence, Cicero, Livy), as well as secondary sources from modern scholarship on gender in antiquity.


    • CLAS 224 - The World of Late Antiquity
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      This course introduces students to the historical period between the close of the ancient world and the rise of the Middle Ages ca. 250 to 650 AD). Students read primary sources and explore the historical evidence in order to investigate the reigning historical model of "Decline and Fall" inherited from Edward Gibbon and others, and study the development of Christianity and Judaism during this period. Finally, the course investigates the formation of Europe and the rise of Islam.


    • ENGL 240 - Arthurian Legend
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
      FacultyKao

      Why does King Arthur continue to fascinate and haunt our cultural imagination? This course surveys the origins and histories of Arthurian literature, beginning with Celtic myths, Welsh tales, and Latin chronicles. We then examine medieval French and English traditions that include Chrétien de Troyes's Perceval, the lais of Marie de France, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the Alliterative Morte Arthure, and Malory's Le Morte Darthur. In addition to historical and literary contexts, we explore theoretical issues surrounding the texts, especially the relationship between history and fantasy, courtly love and adultery, erotic love and madness, romance and chivalry, gender and agency, and Europe and its Others. Finally, we investigate Arthurian medievalisms in Victorian England and in American (post)modernity through Tennyson, Twain, Barthelme, and Ishiguro. Along the way, we view various film adaptations of Arthurian legends. All texts are read in modern English translation.


    • ENGL 242 - Individual Shakespeare Play
      FDRHL
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
      FacultyPickett

      A detailed study of a single Shakespearean play, including its sources, textual variants, performance history, film adaptations and literary and cultural legacy. The course includes both performance-based and analytical assignments.


    • ENGL 250 - Medieval and Early Modern British Literature
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
      FacultyKao

      This course is a survey of English literature from the Early Middle Ages to the Early Modern period. We read works in various genres--verse, drama, and prose--and understand their specific cultural and historical contexts. We also examine select modern film adaptations of canonical works as part of the evolving history of critical reception.


    • ENGL 252 - Shakespeare
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
      FacultyStaff

      A study of the major genres of Shakespeare's plays, employing analysis shaped by formal, historical, and performance-based questions. Emphasis is given to tracing how Shakespeare's work engages early modern cultural concerns, such as the nature of political rule, gender, religion, and sexuality. A variety of skills are developed in order to assist students with interpretation, which may include verse analysis, study of early modern dramatic forms, performance workshops, two medium-length papers, reviews of live play productions, and a final, student-directed performance of a selected play.


    • FILM 255 - Seven-Minute Shakespeare
      FDRHA
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCompletion of the FDR FW and HL requirements
      FacultyDobin

      After intensive collective reading and discussion of four Shakespeare plays in the first week, students organize into four-person groups with the goal of producing a seven-minute video version of one of the plays by the end of the term, using only the actual text of the play. The project requires full engagement and commitment, and includes tasks such as editing and selecting from the text to produce the film script, creating storyboards, casting and recruiting actors, rehearsing, filming, editing, adding sound tracks and effects. We critique and learn from each other's efforts.


    • GERM 318 - German Medieval and Renaissance Literature
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteGERM 262 or equivalent
      FacultyCrockett

      An examination of selected works and a study of literary history through the 16th century. Medieval literary readings include the Hildebrandslied, Nibelungenlied, Parzival, and Tristan, as well as the Minnesang. Consideration is also given to the history of the German literary language during the period covered. Conducted in German.


    • HIST 100 - European Civilization, 325-1517
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyPeterson

      An introductory survey, featuring lectures and discussions of European culture, politics, religion and social life, and of Europe's relations with neighboring societies, from the rise of Christianity in Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages and the Italian Renaissance, to the beginnings of the 16th-century Protestant and Catholic Reformations.


    • HIST 101 - European Civilization, 1500-1789
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      An individual who died in 1500 would have been surprised, if not bewildered, by many aspects of European life and thought in 1800. What changed over these three centuries? What stayed the same? Why should we in the 21st century, care? This course examines the history of Europe from the Renaissance through the beginning of the French Revolution. It explores the interplay of religion, politics, society, culture, and economy at a time when Europe underwent great turmoil and change: the Reformation, the consolidation of state power, the rise of constitutionalism, global expansion and encounters with "others," perpetual warfare, the rise of the market economy, the spread of the slave trade, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. This course discusses how these processes transformed Europe into the Western world of today, while also challenging ideas about what "Western," "European," and "Civilization" actually mean.


    • HIST 170 - History of Islamic Civilization I: Origins to 1500
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyBlecher

      This course surveys the political, social, and cultural history of the Islamic World from the 7th to 15th centuries, with particular attention paid to the diverse geographical and cultural contexts in which pre-modern Islamic civilization flourished. Topics include the origins of Islam in late Antiquity; the development of Islamic religious, political, and cultural institutions; the flourishing of medieval Islamic education, science, and literature; the tension among state, ethnic, sectarian, and global Muslim identities; and the emergence of a distinctly Muslim approach to historiography.


    • LIT 203 - Greek Literature from Homer to the Early Hellenistic Period
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      FacultyCrotty

      Readings in translation from Homer, Hesiod, the tragedians, the comedians, and the lyric and pastoral poets, including selections from Herodotus and Thucydides, and from Plato's and Aristotle's reflections on literature. The course includes readings from modern critical writings. We read some of the most famous stories of the Western world--from the Iliad and the Odyssey, to Milton's Paradise Lost and Joyce's Ulysses, via Virgil's Aeneid and Lucan's Civil War. All of these works are epic narratives, each presenting a different concept of the hero, and yet, at the same time, participating in a coherent, on-going and unfinished tradition. We consider such questions as the role of violence in literature; the concept of the heroic as it reflects evolving ideas of the individual and society; and the idea of a literary tradition.
       


    • LIT 218 - Pre-Modern Chinese Literature in Translation
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement
      FacultyFu

      A survey of Chinese literature from the earliest period to the founding of the Republic in 1912. Taught in English, the course presupposes no previous knowledge of China or Chinese culture. The literature is presented in the context of its intellectual, philosophical and cultural background. Texts used may vary from year to year and include a wide selection of fiction, poetry, historical documents, Chinese drama (opera) and prose works. Audiovisual materials are used when appropriate and available.


    • LIT 219 - Augustine and the Literature of Self, Soul, and Synapses
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
      FacultyKosky

      A careful reading of the depiction of the restless soul in Augustine's Confessions is followed by study of fictional, philosophical, religious, and/or scientific literature. Students reflect on the state of the soul in a world made of selves or the fate of the self in a soulless world ... and whether there might be other options


    • MUS 201 - Music History I
      FDRHA
      Credits3
      FacultyGaylard

      A survey of music from the Middle Ages through the Baroque period.


    • REL 101 - Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyMarks

      An introduction to the history, literature and interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament).


    • REL 102 - New Testament
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyBrown

      An introduction to the history, literature and interpretation of the New Testament.


    • REL 105 - Introduction to Islam
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      This course familiarizes students with the foundations of the Islamic tradition and the diverse historical and geographical manifestations of belief and practice built upon those foundations. Throughout the course, the role of Islam in shaping cultural, social, gender, and political identities is explored. Readings are drawn from the writings of both historical and contemporary Muslim thinkers.


    • REL 106 - Judaism: Tradition and Modernity
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyMarks

      Through a variety of sources, including Talmudic debate, fiction, drama, liturgy, memoirs, film, and history, this course introduces the main concepts, literature, and practices of the classical forms of Judaism that began in the first centuries C.E., and then examines how Judaism has changed during the past two centuries, in modernist movements (Reform, Neo-Orthodoxy, Zionism) and contemporary fundamentalist movements (Ultra-Orthodoxy, messianic settler Zionism), as well as current ideas and issues.


    • REL 108 - The Qur'an
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteInstructor consent required
      FacultyStaff

      This course approaches the Qur'an from a range of modern and pre-modern perspectives: as an oral recitation; as a material object; as a historical document; as a literary text; as it relates to the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament; as a foundation for Islamic law, theology and mysticism; and as a source for ethics and social activism. Particular attention is devoted to issues of gender and politics raised by the Qur'an, supplemented by a number of film screenings. Prior knowledge of Islam is not required.


    • REL 131 - Buddhism
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyHyne-Sutherland

      A survey of the historical development of the doctrines and practices of Buddhism. After a discussion of the Hindu origins of Buddhism, the course focuses on the development of the Theravada, Vajrayana and Mahayana traditions. A class trip to at least one Buddhist center is included.


    • REL 132 - God and Goddess in Hinduism
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyLubin

      This course explores the many ways in which Hindus visualize and talk about the divine and its manifestations in the world through mythic stories, use of images in worship, explanations of the nature of the soul and body in relation to the divine, and the belief in human embodiments of the divine in Hindu holy men and women. Topics include: the religious meanings of masculine and feminine in the divine and human contexts; the idea of local, family, and "chosen" divinities; and differing forms of Hindu devotion for men and women.


    • THTR 210 - Ancient and Global Theater
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      FacultySandberg, Levy

      This course examines the history of theater and dramatic literature from its foundations in ancient world cultures through the Renaissance. Since this history course covers over 2000 years of time, class meetings sometimes move at a fast pace. Students gain a general world-wide cultural understanding of the art and history of the theater from its beginnings, and how theater spread as a phenomenon across the globe. Since theater is primarily a cultural institution, we simultaneously examine politics, philosophy, religion, science, and other factors that influence how the art form is created, maintained, and culturally preserved. We also examine history itself as an important cultural tool for assessing the events of the past.


    • or when appropriate,
    • ARTH 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

      Topics vary by term.


    • CLAS 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-Year seminar. Prerequisite: First-Year standing

      Topic varies by term.


    • ENGL 299 - Seminar for Prospective Majors
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW composition requirement and at least one course chosen from English courses numbered from 203 to 295

      A study of a topic in literature issuing in a research process and sustained critical writing. Some recent topics have been Detective Fiction; American Indian Literatures; Revenge; and David Thoreau and American Transcendentalism.

      Fall 2017, ENGL 299A-01: Seminar for Prospective Majors: Margaret Atwood and Human Rights Discourse (3). Discover the variety of genres (poetry, satire, novels, dystopias) written by one of the greatest living writers, Margaret Atwood. We consider the usefulness of comparative discussion of Atwood's sources (from Homer to Shakespeare to Orwell's 1984), and we employ a human rights framework in discussing her entertaining writings. A sequence of shorter writing assignments lead to a research paper, composed in stages. (HL) Keen.

      Fall 2017, ENGL 299B-01: Seminar for Prospective Majors: The Lord of the Rings from Page to Screen (3). J.R.R. Tolkien's epic novels and historical fantasies along with Peter Jackson's spectacular CGI film versions have together made these texts and, more important, the narrative they tell among the most significant cultural events of the 20th and 21st centuries. This course centers upon The Lord of the Rings novels and films but frames that dual achievement by looking, first, back to Tolkien's roots in 19th-century romance fiction and historical philology and, second, ahead to the important role played by Jackson's film adaptations in the development of modern CGI films. In these ways this course highlights Tolkien's larger cultural achievement, even as it provides students with a rich set of research questions and topics. (HL) Adams.


    • FILM 195 - Topics in Film Studies
      FDRHA
      Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement, and other prerequisites may vary with topic

      Selected topic in film studies, focused on one or more of film history, theory, production, or screenwriting. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • FILM 196 - Topics in Film and Literature
      FDRHL
      Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement, and other prerequisites may vary with topic

      Selected topics in film and literature. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • FREN 281 - Civilisation et culture françaises: Traditions et changements
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent

      A study of significant aspects of French culture and civilization, seen in a diachronic perspective. Emphasis on economic, sociological and historical changes that shaped present-day institutions and national identity. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 283 - Histoire des idées
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164 or equivalent
      FacultyStaff

      This course retraces the evolution of thought in France across centuries through the examination of intellectual, cultural and artistic movements. Readings, discussions and paper in French for further development of communication skills.


    • FREN 285 - Spring Term Topics in French Civilization
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization through direct experience abroad in France and/or Francophone countries. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • HIST 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

      Topics vary by term and instructor.

      Fall 2017, HIST 180-01: FS: Uncovering W&L's Past HIST (3). First-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-year class standing.  180-01 is a research seminar that will be reading and writing intensive, and focus on the African American past of W&L and other colleges. We will focus solely on archival research and the issues that eastern colleges have dealt with in reclaiming this past. (HU) DeLaney.

      Fall 2017, HIST 180-02:  FS: The War to End All Wars. First-Year Seminar (3). Prerequisite: First-year class standing. Idealists in Britain and the USA justified participation in the First World War by arguing that it would end all wars, but the horrific reality of battle confounded their expectations. In this writing-intensive seminar, we analyze four very different literary accounts of the experience of war: an autobiography of a British officer who became a pacifist in the trenches; an autobiographical novel by a patriotic German who never lost faith in his nation's cause; a collection of poems by British women who served as munitions workers or nurses; and the memoir of the "Arab Revolt" against Ottoman Turkish rule by "Lawrence of Arabia". Students are asked to ponder what lessons can be learned today from the "Great War" of 1914-1918. (HU) Patch.

       


    • HIST 195 - Topics in History for First-years and Sophomores
      FDRHU
      Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
      PrerequisiteVaries with topic

      Selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • LIT 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. Completion of FW FDR requirement

      First-year seminar.


    • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation
      FDRHL
      Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement

      A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • REL 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      Credits3 credits in Fall and Winter, 4 credits in Spring
      PrerequisiteFirst-Year class standing

      First-year seminar. Topics vary by term. 

      Fall 2017, REL 180-01: FS: Perspectives on Death and Dying (3). First-year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. A comparison of ways in which various religious traditions, as well as modern secular writers, think about the meaning of life in the face of our human mortality. Students study memoirs, novels, essays, scripture, and film, and write a journal and essays. A discussion-centered course, with visits to a funeral home and cemetery. Note: Should not be repeated in the future as REL 213. (HU) Marks.


    • SPAN 211 - Spanish Civilization and Culture
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164 or the equivalent in language skills
      FacultyStaff

      A survey of significant developments in Spanish civilization. The course addresses Spanish heritage and the present-day cultural patterns formed by its legacies. Readings, discussions and papers, primarily in Spanish, for further development of communication skills.


    • SPAN 220 - Introducción a la literatura española
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteSPAN 162 or 164 or equivalent
      FacultyStaff

      Spanish literary masterpieces from the Poema del Cid through the present. Readings and discussions are primarily in Spanish.


    • THTR 121 - Script Analysis for Stage and Screen
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      FacultySandberg, Levy, Collins, Evans

      The study of selected plays and screenplays from the standpoint of the theatre and screen artists. Emphasis on thorough examination of the scripts preparatory to production. This course is focused on developing script analysis skills directly applicable to work in production. Students work collaboratively in various creative capacities to transform texts into productions.


    • THTR 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

      First-year seminar.


    • WRIT 100 - Writing Seminar for First-Years
      FDRFW
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year standing

      Concentrated work in composition with readings ranging across modes, forms, and genres in the humanities, social sciences, or sciences. The sections vary in thematic focus across disciplines, but all students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-01: Writing Seminar for First-Years: The Good Wife (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. This seminar considers the good wife, or, how to survive a marriage, run a household, and save a kingdom, by examining two iconic wives in literature: Griselda and Scheherazade. One is known for her sacrificial patience, the other, cunning fabrication. Yet both share the status of female paragons around whom a community coheres. Reading an eclectic range of texts from the medieval to the postmodern, we ask how gender shapes representation, and vice versa. We chart the various transformations of the two female archetypes through literary history and are on the lookout for moments of breakdown under the burden of exemplarity. And if their goodness resides in securing common profit, how do Griselda and Scheherazade compare to other figures of femininity, such as the diva and the whore? Throughout the seminar, our emphasis is on learning the craft of academic writing via close reading, research, and engagement with critical sources. That is, we read, think, and write like Griselda and Scheherazade—with fortitude and deftness. (FW) Kao.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-02: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Slaveries, Past and Present (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. This seminar reads about forms of bondage spanning ancient Greece, 19th-century Brazil, and 20th- and 21st-centrury India. What define and distinguish forms of enslavement ranging from war conquests to chattel slavery to debt bondage? How have abolitionists, past and present, defined and argued for freedom, equality, and other Enlightenment ideals? A readerly goal of this course is to excavate the presence of slavery in seemingly straightforward and "post"-abolition texts. Works include a novel (A Woman Named Solitude), a documentary history (Children of God's Fire), and a film adaptation (the novel Sold). (FW) Rajbanshi.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-03: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Faith, Doubt and Identity (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. In this writing-intensive seminar, we explore the topic of belief and how it shapes a person's selfhood. How does being a part of a religious community, or a variety of religious communities, shape one's identity? How does identity change with the adoption of either belief, skepticism, or another culture? We ask these questions primarily through the genres of novels and short stories, examining lives of faith and doubt. In addition to completing a series of argumentative papers, students practice multimodal writing by creating digital stories. (FW) Gertz.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-04: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Business Writing Essentials (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. From emails to pitch books, writing remains a foundation of modern business communication. This section offers students the essential theories, skills, strategies, and tactics to become effective written communicators in modern business settings. Students taking this course develop written work purposefully designed to engage readers within a business context with well-researched information and well-founded arguments. Students analyze, discuss, and produce various forms of professional documentation as they develop their abilities to write ethically and effectively. Projects involve chirographic, print, digital, verbal, and non-verbal forms of business writing. (FW) Lind.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-05: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Aspects of Elizabeth (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) is among history's most fascinating figures. She ruled a small island, beset by threats both external and internal, during a period of tremendous political, religious and cultural change. Her 45-year reign saw the conspiracies and eventual execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, the consolidation of the Church of England, the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and the flowering of English culture in such figures as Shakespeare, Donne, and Marlowe. We learn about both the public and private Elizabeth by focusing on four distinct topics: her own poetry, letters and speeches; the portraits of her as princess and queen; her controversial personal and political relationship with Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex; and films about Elizabeth. The primary texts of the course are each other's essays; we learn about our topic by reading what other students have written, while focusing most of our class time on improving our writing skills. (FW) Dobin.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-06: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Fiends, Monsters, and Tyrants: Gothic Literature from Frankenstein to Coraline (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. Beginning with the first gothic novel in 1764, the gothic has thrilled readers for centuries. Featuring a wide variety of foes, the gothic novel offers readers a way to explore their deepest fears: Frankenstein (1818), for instance, speaks to concerns about scientific ambition, while Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) taps into anxiety about whether you can ever really know your neighbor (or yourself). In this course, students learn the fundamentals of strong writing, with an emphasis on clarity, use of evidence, and argumentation. Students build these skills in a series of writing assignments; in addition to literary analyses, students write papers examining how the gothic speaks to our contemporary moment, culminating in a project in which they create a gothic work of their own. (FW) Walle.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-07: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Superheroes (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. This writing-focused course studies the development of superhero graphic narratives as a genre and comics as an art form through the 20th and into the 21st century. Likely texts include Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman episodes in Action Comics (1938), Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Amazing Spider-Man (1962), Frank Miller and Bill Sienkiewicz's Elektra: Assassin (1987), and Willow Wilson and Adrian Alphona's Ms. Marvel (2015). (FW) Gavaler.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-08: Writing Seminar for First-Years; Magic, Realism and Alternative Facts: Literature, Politics and the Creation of Reality (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. In this section, we study works by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Alejo Carpentier, Isabel Allende and others, who responded to government-sponsored atrocities in Latin America through the literary form of Magical Realism. When confronted by political machines insistent on minimizing, denying and ultimately erasing brutal events, these authors paradoxically embraced the fantastical in order to accurately portray reality. With this as our starting point, we continue on to consider other authors and different forms of media, including the contemporary and popular, to examine the role of fact in both showing, and shaping, reality. (FW) Fuentes.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-09: Writing Seminar for First-Years: A Whole New World (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style.  In this age of global travel, economics, and politics, people can go almost anywhere and find similar technology and consumer goods, experiencing a new place as a comfortable and in some ways familiar variation on home. At other times visitors and newcomers really have discovered a whole new world. In this section, students study novels, movies, and other accounts of cultural encounters between people who have been in the same place but experienced very different worlds. Works may include James Welch's Fools Crow about white men first meeting the Blackfeet Indians in Montana, Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart about the English first coming to Nigeria, and Cormac McCarthy's The Road about the breakdown of shared culture in a post-apocalyptic world. We also think about how such encounters are depicted in popular culture, from Disney movies to advertisements to music videos. We compare these fictional encounters with international experiences, issues, and conflicts today. (FW) Smout.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-10: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Mysteries, Puzzles, & Conundrums (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. In this section, we concern ourselves with mysteries, not in the generic sense of stories about crime and detection, but mysteries of character, morality, religion, and art. Central to each of the works we study is some puzzle, secret, riddle, enigma, or complexity. Sometimes the work itself is the mystery, a kind of hieroglyph. Each work, in its own way, raises questions about the methods and limitations of human discovery. We approach the student's writing as a means of investigation and discovery as well, with an emphasis on developing the skills necessary to build convincing "cases" (i.e., arguments) when evidence is incomplete, ambiguous, or contradictory. (FW) Oliver.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-11: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Other Worlds (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. This section focuses on fiction and poetry about borders and boundary states. Many of the readings, too, come from the edges of genre. Authors may include Butler, Le Guin, Mandel, and other 20th- and 21st-century writers. In addition to critical writing, there are creative writing options. (FW) Wheeler.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-12: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Nonconformity and Community (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. What's the proper role of nonconformity in the healthy community? How much conformity is needed to sustain a culture? Are complete nonconformity and strict conformity even possible? Through readings by classic and contemporary writers, we explore the importance of sameness and difference within the various communities to which we belong. In the process, the seminar includes an examination of some of Washington and Lee's core values, including honor and integrity. (FW) Pickett.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-13:  Writing Seminar for First Years:  On the Flip (3).  Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. In this section, we explore the ideas of remaking and adaptation.  We examine 20th- and 21st-century fiction, poetry, film, and hybrid texts that interact with subject matter stretching from Greek mythology to New World castaway stories to African American slave narratives. Authors and artists considered throughout the term include John Keene, Elizabeth Bishop, Steve McQueen, Gordon Parks, Anne Carson, J.M. Coetzee, and Luis Buñuel.  What is the nature of the work they attempt?  What is lost and gained in these re-visions?  In response to these questions, emphasis is placed on critical reading and writing (and rewriting), as well as on research skills.  In addition to traditional scholarly writing, an option exists for students to produce a creative project responding to the ideas of the seminar. (FW) Wilson.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-14: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Conspiracies and the Paranoid Style (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing  several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. In this section, we explore the strange shadow realities of the conspiracy theory, from classics like the Kennedy assassination and alien autopsies to new favorites like lizard people and the flat earth. We watch a handful of movies and read some fiction, some creative nonfiction, and some things that defy categorization, with the goal of understanding how conspiracy theorists construct arguments and how to recognize when we might be buying in to paranoid narratives or fake news. (FW) Ferguson.

      Fall 2017, WRIT 100-15: Writing Seminar for First-Years: Business Writing Essentials (3). Prerequisite: First-year standing. Concentrated work in composition. All students write at least four revised essays in addition to completing several exercises emphasizing writing as a process. All sections stress active reading, argumentation, the appropriate presentation of evidence, various methods of critical analysis, and clarity of style. From emails to pitch books, writing remains a foundation of modern business communication. This section offers students the essential theories, skills, strategies, and tactics to become effective written communicators in modern business settings. Students taking this course develop written work purposefully designed to engage readers within a business context with well-researched information and well-founded arguments. Students analyze, discuss, and produce various forms of professional documentation as they develop their abilities to write ethically and effectively. Projects involve chirographic, print, digital, verbal, and non-verbal forms of business writing. (FW) Lind.


  2. 27 credits chosen from courses in the following four areas.
  3. Majors must complete four courses in one area, two courses in each of two other areas, and one course in the fourth area.

    • History and History of Science:
      • CLAS 224 - The World of Late Antiquity
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        This course introduces students to the historical period between the close of the ancient world and the rise of the Middle Ages ca. 250 to 650 AD). Students read primary sources and explore the historical evidence in order to investigate the reigning historical model of "Decline and Fall" inherited from Edward Gibbon and others, and study the development of Christianity and Judaism during this period. Finally, the course investigates the formation of Europe and the rise of Islam.


      • HIST 100 - European Civilization, 325-1517
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        An introductory survey, featuring lectures and discussions of European culture, politics, religion and social life, and of Europe's relations with neighboring societies, from the rise of Christianity in Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages and the Italian Renaissance, to the beginnings of the 16th-century Protestant and Catholic Reformations.


      • HIST 101 - European Civilization, 1500-1789
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        An individual who died in 1500 would have been surprised, if not bewildered, by many aspects of European life and thought in 1800. What changed over these three centuries? What stayed the same? Why should we in the 21st century, care? This course examines the history of Europe from the Renaissance through the beginning of the French Revolution. It explores the interplay of religion, politics, society, culture, and economy at a time when Europe underwent great turmoil and change: the Reformation, the consolidation of state power, the rise of constitutionalism, global expansion and encounters with "others," perpetual warfare, the rise of the market economy, the spread of the slave trade, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. This course discusses how these processes transformed Europe into the Western world of today, while also challenging ideas about what "Western," "European," and "Civilization" actually mean.

         


      • HIST 170 - History of Islamic Civilization I: Origins to 1500
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBlecher

        This course surveys the political, social, and cultural history of the Islamic World from the 7th to 15th centuries, with particular attention paid to the diverse geographical and cultural contexts in which pre-modern Islamic civilization flourished. Topics include the origins of Islam in late Antiquity; the development of Islamic religious, political, and cultural institutions; the flourishing of medieval Islamic education, science, and literature; the tension among state, ethnic, sectarian, and global Muslim identities; and the emergence of a distinctly Muslim approach to historiography.


      • HIST 201 - Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 325-1198
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        Examines, through lectures and discussions, the culture and society of late Roman antiquity; the rise of Christianity and the formation of the Western church; Europe's relations with Byzantium and Islam, Germanic culture, monasticism, Charlemagne's empire; the Vikings, feudalism, manorialism, agriculture and the rise of commerce; gender roles and family structures; warfare and the Crusades; the growth of the papacy and feudal monarchies, the conflict between church and state; the revival of legal studies and theology; and the development of chivalric and romantic ideals in the cultural renewal of the 11th and 12th centuries.


      • HIST 202 - Europe in the Late Middle Ages, 1198-1500
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        Examines, through lectures and discussions, the high medieval papacy; the rise of new lay religious movements; Franciscans and Dominicans; dissent and heresy; the Inquisition; Jews and minorities; the rise of universities; scholasticism and humanism; the development of law; Parliament and constitutionalism; the Hundred Years War; the Black Death; the papal schism and conciliarism; gender roles; family structures and child rearing; Europe's relations with Islam and Byzantium; and the rise of commerce, cities and urban values, as well as of the "new monarchies."


      • HIST 203 - The Italian Renaissance in Its Historical Setting
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        Examines, through lectures and discussions, the Italian Renaissance within the framework of European religious, political and cultural development. The rise and impact of commercial and urban values on religious and political life in the Italian communes to the time of Dante. Cultural and political life in the "despotic" signorie and in republics such as Florence and Venice. The diffusion of Renaissance cultural ideals from Florence to the other republics and courts of 15th-century Italy, to the papacy, and to Christian humanists north of the Alps. Readings from Dante, Petrarch, Leonardo Bruni, Pico della Mirandola and Machiavelli.


      • HIST 204 - The Age of Reformation
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        Examines the origins, development, and consequences of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations of the 16th century. The late medieval religious environment; the emergence of new forms of lay religious expression; the impact of urbanization; and the institutional dilemmas of the church. The views of leading reformers, such as Luther, Calvin, and Loyola; and the impact of differing social and political contexts; and technological innovations, such as printing, on the spread of reform throughout Europe. The impact of reform and religious strife on state development and the emergence of doctrines of religious toleration and philosophical skepticism; recent theses and approaches emphasizing "confessionalization," "social discipline," and "microhistory."


      • HIST 217 - History of the British Isles to 1688: Power, Plague, and Prayer
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBrock

        The history of the British Isles to 1688 tells the story of how an island remote from the classical world came to dominate much of the modern one. This course ventures from Britain during Roman occupation and Anglo-Saxon migration, to the expansion of the Church and tales of chivalry during the Middle Ages, then finally to exploration and conflict during the Tudor and Stuart dynasties. Topics include the development of Christianity, Viking invasions, the Scottish wars of independence, the evolution of parliament, the Black Death, the Wars of the Roses, the Reformation, the beginnings of Empire, and the 17th-century revolutions. 


      • HIST 219 - Seminar: The Age of the Witch Hunts
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteOpen to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. First-years may request instructor consent
        FacultyBrock

        This course introduces students to one of the most fascinating and disturbing events in the history of the Western world: the witch hunts in early-modern Europe and North America. Between 1450 and 1750, more than 100,000 individuals, from Russia to Salem, were prosecuted for the crime of witchcraft. Most were women and more than half were executed. In this course, we examine the political, religious, social, and legal reasons behind the trials, asking why they occurred in Europe when they did and why they finally ended. We also explore, in brief, global witch hunts that still occur today in places like Africa and India, asking how they resemble yet differ from those of the early-modern world.


      • HIST 305 - Seminar: Religion, Church, and Politics in Medieval and Renaissance Society
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        The seminar draws on primary and secondary sources to examine the rise of Christianity in Europe, church-state relations, scholastic theology, mendicant piety, lay religious life, mysticism, heresy, humanism, gender and religion, urban and rural contexts, and church reform.


      • HIST 306 - Seminar: Politics and Providence: Medieval and Renaissance Political Thought
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        How did religion shape politics and the development of political institutions in the Middle Ages? This seminar surveys the evolution of political thought from St. Augustine to Machiavelli. We examine Christianity's providential view of history, church-state relations, scholasticism, the revivals of Greek and Roman philosophy, humanism, and the origins of the modern state. Readings include St. Augustine, John of Salisbury, St. Thomas Aquinas, Marsilius of Padua, Leonardo Bruni, and Niccolò Machiavelli.


      • HIST 307 - Politics and History: The Machiavellian Moment
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        FacultyPeterson

        Is it better to be loved or feared? How much of our destiny do we control? When are societies fit for self-rule? Can people be forced to be good? Niccolò Machiavelli, arguably the first and most controversial modern political theorist, raises issues of universal human and political concern. Yet he did so in a very specific context--the Florence of the Medici, Michelangelo, and Savonarola--at a time when Renaissance Italy stood at the summit of artistic brilliance and on the threshold of political collapse. We draw on Machiavelli's personal, political, historical, and literary writings, and readings in history and art, as a point of entry for exploring Machiavelli's republican vision of history and politics as he developed it in the Italian Renaissance and how it addresses such perennial issues as the corruption and regeneration of societies.


      • PHYS 150 - The Immense Journey: Harmonices Mundi
        FDRSL
        Credits4
        FacultyStaff

        The classical astronomy of the solar system is traced by a study of Greek astronomy and the revolutionary ideas of Kepler and Newton. The apparent and real motions of the earth, moon, and planets are studied in detail, as well as special phenomena such as eclipses, tides, and objects such as comets and asteroids. Emphasis is on comprehension and application of principles rather than memorization of facts. The laboratory stresses the observational aspects of astronomy. Elementary geometry, algebra, and trigonometry are used in the course. Laboratory course with fee.


      • SPAN 333 - El Cid in History and Legend
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275
        FacultyBailey

        A study of the most significant portrayals of the Castilian warrior Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid (1045-1099), from his 12th-century biography Historia Roderici to the Hollywood blockbuster El Cid. Epic poems, late medieval ballads, and Renaissance drama all recreate the legendary life of El Cid. This course examines the relevant narratives in an effort to determine the heroic values and attributes recreated by authors and their audiences for nearly a thousand years.


      • And, when appropriate:
        • HIST 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

          Topics vary by term and instructor.

          Fall 2017, HIST 180-01: FS: Uncovering W&L's Past HIST (3). First-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-year class standing.  180-01 is a research seminar that will be reading and writing intensive, and focus on the African American past of W&L and other colleges. We will focus solely on archival research and the issues that eastern colleges have dealt with in reclaiming this past. (HU) DeLaney.

          Fall 2017, HIST 180-02:  FS: The War to End All Wars. First-Year Seminar (3). Prerequisite: First-year class standing. Idealists in Britain and the USA justified participation in the First World War by arguing that it would end all wars, but the horrific reality of battle confounded their expectations. In this writing-intensive seminar, we analyze four very different literary accounts of the experience of war: an autobiography of a British officer who became a pacifist in the trenches; an autobiographical novel by a patriotic German who never lost faith in his nation's cause; a collection of poems by British women who served as munitions workers or nurses; and the memoir of the "Arab Revolt" against Ottoman Turkish rule by "Lawrence of Arabia". Students are asked to ponder what lessons can be learned today from the "Great War" of 1914-1918. (HU) Patch.

           


        • HIST 195 - Topics in History for First-years and Sophomores
          FDRHU
          Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
          PrerequisiteVaries with topic

          Selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • HIST 229 - Topics in European History
          FDRHU
          Credits3 credit in fall or winter; 4 in spring

          A course offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in European history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • HIST 395 - Advanced Seminar
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing, or 15 credits in history, or consent of the instructor. Prerequisites may vary by topic

          A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Fall 2017, HIST 395A-01: Darwin and his Critics: the History of Evolutionary Biology (3). HIST 295A is for all class years and all majors. HIST 395A is for history majors, with additional required writing and research. The theory of organic evolution is widely considered one of the greatest discoveries of modern science, impacting science and society alike. By and large, the theory has been identified with Darwin and his famous On the Origin of Species. Yet, to what extent is Darwinian theory a cultural construct rather than a factual discovery? In opposition to orthodox Darwinians, such as Ernst Mayr and Richard Dawkins, there have been many critics, ranging from intelligent design advocates in the Anglo-American world to structuralist evolutionary thinkers in the Germanic world, the latter often allied to liberal Christianity. (HU) Rupke.

          Fall 2017, HIST 395B-01: Science, the Paranormal and the Supernatural (3). HIST 295B is for all class years and all majors. HIST 395B is for history majors, with additional required writing and research. This course explores the fascinating history of the uneasy relationship between science and its contested boundaries where fact and fiction overlap. In modern - especially late-modern - times, science has become the adjudicator of truth - truth in terms of fact and law-like rationality. The result has been a retreat of the occult, of many superstitions, and the uncovering of fallacies and frauds. Yet large sectors of modern society have remained enamored of the paranormal. Even scientific practitioners themselves, including Nobel Laureates, have kept alive a belief in telepathy, precognition and such-like phenomena. Equally persistent, especially in religious circles, has been the conviction that miracles do happen; and, again, great scientists and medical practitioners have supported these and similar notions. More recently, the study of "wonders" has emerged as a separate field of inquiry: anomalistics.  (HU) Rupke.


        • HIST 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteCumulative grade-point average of 3.250 in all history courses, completion of three 200- or 300-level history courses, and instructor consent

          A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered in other courses. May be repeated for degree credit each term of the junior and senior year.


        • MRST 395 - Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Studies
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteInstructor consent
          FacultyStaff

          A seminar concentrating on topics or concepts relevant to Medieval and Renaissance studies. Topics are offered according to the interests of participating faculty. This course may be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MRST 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the instructor
          FacultyStaff

          Individual study of selected topics in Medieval and Renaissance studies. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • PHYS 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the instructor
          FacultyStaff

          Advanced work and reading in topics selected by the instructor to fit special needs of advanced students. This course may be repeated with permission for a total of six credits.


        • ROML 295 - Topics in Romance Languages
          Credits1-3
          Prerequisitevary with topic

          Nature and content of the course is determined by the interests of the instructor(s) and student(s). May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


           


    • Literature:
      • CLAS 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-Year seminar. Prerequisite: First-Year standing

        Topic varies by term.


      • CLAS 201 - Classical Mythology
        FDRHL
        Credits3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring
        FacultyCrotty

        An introduction to the study of Greek mythology, with an emphasis on the primary sources. The myths are presented in their historical, religious, and political contexts. The course also includes an introduction to several major theories of myth, and uses comparative materials drawn from contemporary society and media.


      • CLAS 203 - Greek Literature from Homer to the Early Hellenistic Period
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyCrotty

        Readings in translation from Homer, Hesiod, the tragedians, the comedians, and the lyric and pastoral poets, including selections from Herodotus and Thucydides, and from Plato's and Aristotle's reflections on literature. The course includes readings from modern critical writings.


      • CLAS 205 - Reading Rome: A Survey of Latin Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyDance

        The course offers a survey of influential works composed in Latin between the 3rd century BCE and the 2nd century CE. Alongside poems, histories, and philosophical writings that were originally conceived of as literary projects, we also examine plays, military chronicles, speeches, and letters, all of which come down to the present as "literature" but may not have been created as such. The boundaries of "literature" is an ongoing topic of inquiry throughout the term. Students explore the literary traditions represented in the readings and consider their impact on other traditions, with the bulk of class sessions spent discussing the significance of the literary works and improving our knowledge of the contexts--historical and literary--in which they were composed.


      • CLAS 208 - The Classical Epic Tradition
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyCrotty

        In this course, we read some of the most famous stories of the Western world, from the Iliad and the Odyssey, to Milton's Paradise Lost and Joyce's Ulysses, via Virgil's Aeneid and Lucan's Civil War. All of these works are epic narratives, each presenting a different concept of the hero, and yet, at the same time, participating in a coherent, ongoing, and unfinished tradition. Questions explored include: the problematic nature of the hero, the relation between poetry and violence, the nature of literary tradition.


      • CLAS 215 - Ancient Drama and Its Influence
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyCrotty

        In this course we study ancient tragedy and comedy, both Greek and Roman, and look, too, at the cultural forces shaping ancient drama and some of the influence on later drama and thought. In addition to later plays that hail from ancient drama, we consider some philosophical interpretations of the significance of drama, and, in particular, tragedy.


      • ENGL 240 - Arthurian Legend
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyKao

        Why does King Arthur continue to fascinate and haunt our cultural imagination? This course surveys the origins and histories of Arthurian literature, beginning with Celtic myths, Welsh tales, and Latin chronicles. We then examine medieval French and English traditions that include Chrétien de Troyes's Perceval, the lais of Marie de France, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the Alliterative Morte Arthure, and Malory's Le Morte Darthur. In addition to historical and literary contexts, we explore theoretical issues surrounding the texts, especially the relationship between history and fantasy, courtly love and adultery, erotic love and madness, romance and chivalry, gender and agency, and Europe and its Others. Finally, we investigate Arthurian medievalisms in Victorian England and in American (post)modernity through Tennyson, Twain, Barthelme, and Ishiguro. Along the way, we view various film adaptations of Arthurian legends. All texts are read in modern English translation.


      • ENGL 242 - Individual Shakespeare Play
        FDRHL
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyPickett

        A detailed study of a single Shakespearean play, including its sources, textual variants, performance history, film adaptations and literary and cultural legacy. The course includes both performance-based and analytical assignments.


      • ENGL 250 - Medieval and Early Modern British Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyKao

        This course is a survey of English literature from the Early Middle Ages to the Early Modern period. We read works in various genres--verse, drama, and prose--and understand their specific cultural and historical contexts. We also examine select modern film adaptations of canonical works as part of the evolving history of critical reception.


      • ENGL 252 - Shakespeare
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyStaff

        A study of the major genres of Shakespeare's plays, employing analysis shaped by formal, historical, and performance-based questions. Emphasis is given to tracing how Shakespeare's work engages early modern cultural concerns, such as the nature of political rule, gender, religion, and sexuality. A variety of skills are developed in order to assist students with interpretation, which may include verse analysis, study of early modern dramatic forms, performance workshops, two medium-length papers, reviews of live play productions, and a final, student-directed performance of a selected play.


      • ENGL 311 - History of the English Language
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteENGL 299 or instructor consent
        FacultyKao

        In The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer's Friar can "make his Englissh sweete upon his tonge."  This course examines not only the alleged "sweetness" of English but also the evolution of the language from its origins to the present.  We study basic terms and concepts of linguistics and trace the changes in structure, pronunciation, and vocabulary from Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English to Modern English.  We consider how historical and cultural forces—invasion, revolution, migration, colonization, and assimilation—shape the language.  Moreover, we examine language myths, the construction of standard English, issues of correctness, orality, pidgins and creoles, and the variety of Englishes in their diverse configurations.  Finally, we ask how new media and technological praxes—hypertext, email, texting, and tweeting—have changed the English language, and if English may or may not be the lingua franca of our increasingly globalized world.


      • ENGL 312 - Gender, Love, and Marriage in the Middle Ages
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENGL 299
        FacultyKao

        A study of the complex nexus of gender, love, and marriage in medieval legal, theological, political, and cultural discourses. Reading an eclectic range of texts--such as romance, hagiography, fabliau, (auto)biography, conduct literature, and drama--we consider questions of desire, masculinity, femininity, and agency, as well as the production and maintenance of gender roles and of emotional bonds within medieval conjugality. Authors include Chaucer, Chretien de Troyes, Heldris of Cornwall, Andreas Capellanus, Margery Kempe, and Christine de Pisan. Readings in Middle English or in translation. No prior knowledge of medieval languages necessary.

         


      • ENGL 313 - Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENGL 299
        FacultyKao

        This course considers the primary work on which Chaucer's reputation rests: The Canterbury Tales. We pay sustained attention to Chaucer's Middle English at the beginning of the semester to ease the reading process. Then we travel alongside the Canterbury pilgrims as they tell their tales under the guise of a friendly competition. The Canterbury Tales is frequently read as a commentary on the social divisions in late medieval England, such as the traditional estates, religious professionals and laity, and gender hierarchies. But despite the Tales' professed inclusiveness of the whole of English society, Chaucer nonetheless focuses inordinately on those individuals from the emerging middle classes. Our aim is to approach the Tales from the practices of historicization and theorization; that is, we both examine Chaucer's cultural and historical contexts and consider issues of religion, gender, sexuality, marriage, conduct, class, chivalry, courtly love, community, geography, history, power, spirituality, secularism, traditional authority, and individual experience. Of particular importance are questions of voicing and writing, authorship and readership. Lastly, we think through Chaucer's famous Retraction at the "end" of The Canterbury Tales, as well as Donald R. Howard's trenchant observation that the Tale is "unfinished but complete." What does it mean for the father of literary "Englishness" to end his life's work on the poetic principle of unfulfilled closure and on the image of a society on the move?


      • ENGL 316 - The Tudors
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        Prerequisiteor corequisite: ENGL 299
        FacultyGertz

        Famous for his mistresses and marriages, his fickle treatment of courtiers, and his vaunting ambition, Henry VIII did more to change English society and religion than any other king. No one understood Henry's power more carefully than his daughter Elizabeth, who oversaw England's first spy network and jealously guarded her throne from rebel contenders. This course studies the writers who worked for the legendary Tudors, focusing on the love poetry of courtiers, trials, and persecution of religious dissidents, plays, and accounts of exploration to the new world. We trace how the ambitions of the monarch, along with religious revolution and colonial expansion, figure in the work of writers like Wyatt, Surrey, and Anne Askew; Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Southwell; and Thomas More and Walter Ralegh.


      • ENGL 319 - Shakespeare and Company
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENGL 299
        FacultyPickett

        Focusing on the repertory and working conditions of the two play companies with which he was centrally involved, this course examines plays by Shakespeare and several of his contemporary collaborators and colleagues (Jonson, Middleton, Fletcher). Attentive to stage history and the evolution of dramatic texts within print culture, students consider the degree to which Shakespeare was both a representative and an exceptional player in Renaissance London's "show business."


      • ENGL 320 - Shakespearean Genres
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENGL 299
        FacultyPickett

        In a given term, this course focuses on one or two of the major genres explored by Shakespeare (e.g., histories, tragedies, comedies, tragicomedies/romances, lyric and narrative poetry), in light of Renaissance literary conventions and recent theoretical approaches. Students consider the ways in which Shakespeare's generic experiments are variably inflected by gender, by political considerations, by habitat, and by history.


      • ENGL 326 - 17th-Century Poetry
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENGL 299
        FacultyGertz

        Readings of lyric and epic poetry spanning the long 16th century, and tracing the development of republican and cavalier literary modes. Genres include the metaphysical poetry of Donne, Herbert, Katherine Philips, and Henry Vaughan; erotic verse by Mary Wroth, Herrick, Thomas Carew, Marvell, Aphra Behn, and the Earl of Rochester; elegy by Jonson and Bradstreet; and epic by Milton.


      • ENGL 330 - Milton
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENGL 299
        FacultyGertz

        This course surveys one of the most talented and probing authors of the English language -- a man whose reading knowledge and poetic output has never been matched, and whose work has influenced a host of writers after him, including Alexander Pope, William Blake, William Wordsworth, and Mary Shelley. In this course, we read selections from Milton's literary corpus, drawing from such diverse genres as lyric, drama, epic and prose polemic. As part of their study of epic form, students create a digital humanities project rendering Paradise Lost in gaming context. Quests, heroes,ethical choices and exploration of new worlds in Paradise Lost are rendered as a game. Students read Milton in the context of literary criticism and place him within his historical milieu, not the least of which includes England's dizzying series of political metamorphoses from Monarchy to Commonwealth, Commonwealth to Protectorate, and Protectorate back to Monarchy.


      • FREN 281 - Civilisation et culture françaises: Traditions et changements
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent

        A study of significant aspects of French culture and civilization, seen in a diachronic perspective. Emphasis on economic, sociological and historical changes that shaped present-day institutions and national identity. Readings, discussions and papers in French for further development of communication skills.


      • GERM 318 - German Medieval and Renaissance Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteGERM 262 or equivalent
        FacultyCrockett

        An examination of selected works and a study of literary history through the 16th century. Medieval literary readings include the Hildebrandslied, Nibelungenlied, Parzival, and Tristan, as well as the Minnesang. Consideration is also given to the history of the German literary language during the period covered. Conducted in German.


      • LATN 327 - Medieval and Renaissance Writers
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteLATN 202 or instructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        Readings from Augustine, Bede, the Crusader historians, medieval hymns, the Carmina Burana , Petrarch, and texts proposed by students.


      • LIT 203 - Greek Literature from Homer to the Early Hellenistic Period
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyCrotty

        Readings in translation from Homer, Hesiod, the tragedians, the comedians, and the lyric and pastoral poets, including selections from Herodotus and Thucydides, and from Plato's and Aristotle's reflections on literature. The course includes readings from modern critical writings. We read some of the most famous stories of the Western world--from the Iliad and the Odyssey, to Milton's Paradise Lost and Joyce's Ulysses, via Virgil's Aeneid and Lucan's Civil War. All of these works are epic narratives, each presenting a different concept of the hero, and yet, at the same time, participating in a coherent, on-going and unfinished tradition. We consider such questions as the role of violence in literature; the concept of the heroic as it reflects evolving ideas of the individual and society; and the idea of a literary tradition.
         


      • LIT 218 - Pre-Modern Chinese Literature in Translation
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement
        FacultyFu

        A survey of Chinese literature from the earliest period to the founding of the Republic in 1912. Taught in English, the course presupposes no previous knowledge of China or Chinese culture. The literature is presented in the context of its intellectual, philosophical and cultural background. Texts used may vary from year to year and include a wide selection of fiction, poetry, historical documents, Chinese drama (opera) and prose works. Audiovisual materials are used when appropriate and available.


      • LIT 219 - Augustine and the Literature of Self, Soul, and Synapses
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyKosky

        A careful reading of the depiction of the restless soul in Augustine's Confessions is followed by study of fictional, philosophical, religious, and/or scientific literature. Students reflect on the state of the soul in a world made of selves or the fate of the self in a soulless world ... and whether there might be other options


      • SPAN 210 - The Road to Santiago
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164 or equivalent, and instructor consent
        FacultyStaff

        Spring Term Abroad course. A study of Spanish culture and language conducted entirely in Spain. During the first three weeks of the course, students live in Madrid with Spanish-speaking families and study language at Estudio Internacional Sampere. At the same time, students engage in an in-depth study of the history and legend of the eight-centuries-old pilgrimage to the shrine of Santiago de Compostela, the burial site of St James, apostle of Christ. During the last week of the course, students travel to northwestern Spain to visit and study the monuments associated with the Santiago pilgrimage as well as experience the art, architecture, and culture of pilgrimage as they hike the last portion of the trail.


      • SPAN 211 - Spanish Civilization and Culture
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 162, 164 or the equivalent in language skills
        FacultyStaff

        A survey of significant developments in Spanish civilization. The course addresses Spanish heritage and the present-day cultural patterns formed by its legacies. Readings, discussions and papers, primarily in Spanish, for further development of communication skills.


      • SPAN 220 - Introducción a la literatura española
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 162 or 164 or equivalent
        FacultyStaff

        Spanish literary masterpieces from the Poema del Cid through the present. Readings and discussions are primarily in Spanish.


      • SPAN 312 - Medieval Spanish Cultures in Context
        FDRHL
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteSPAN 211 or 220 and instructor consent
        FacultyBailey

        Spring Term Abroad course. Muslims, Jews, and Christians co-existed for eight-hundred years on the Iberian Peninsula. This course examines these diverse cultures through the texts (literary, historical, religious, and philosophical), the art, and the architecture from the period prior to the arrival of the Arabs in 711, up to and beyond the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. The objective of the course is to glean from the remnants of the experience of their co-existence insights into their distinctive characteristics and how they understood and influenced each other.


      • SPAN 320 - Don Quijote
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275
        FacultyCampbell

        Close reading and discussion of this Early Modern novel. May include close reading and discussion of additional narrative and poetic genres of the Golden Age, as represented in or contributing to the Cervantine work


      • SPAN 322 - Spanish Golden-Age Drama
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275
        FacultyCampbell

        Close reading and discussion of a variety of selected Golden Age dramas of the 17th century. Representative dramatists may include Calderón de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Lope de Vega, and María de Zayas.
         


      • SPAN 323 - Golden Age Spanish Women Writers
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275
        FacultyCampbell

        A study of the comedia and the novela corta and the manner in which the secular women writers inscribe themselves within and beyond these genres. Close reading and discussion of representative works that may include the short stories and plays by María de Zayas, Ana Caro, Leonor de Meneses, Mariana de Carvajal, and Angela de Azevedo.


      • SPAN 333 - El Cid in History and Legend
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275
        FacultyBailey

        A study of the most significant portrayals of the Castilian warrior Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid (1045-1099), from his 12th-century biography Historia Roderici to the Hollywood blockbuster El Cid. Epic poems, late medieval ballads, and Renaissance drama all recreate the legendary life of El Cid. This course examines the relevant narratives in an effort to determine the heroic values and attributes recreated by authors and their audiences for nearly a thousand years.


      • And, when appropriate:
        • ENGL 299 - Seminar for Prospective Majors
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteCompletion of FW composition requirement and at least one course chosen from English courses numbered from 203 to 295

          A study of a topic in literature issuing in a research process and sustained critical writing. Some recent topics have been Detective Fiction; American Indian Literatures; Revenge; and David Thoreau and American Transcendentalism.

          Fall 2017, ENGL 299A-01: Seminar for Prospective Majors: Margaret Atwood and Human Rights Discourse (3). Discover the variety of genres (poetry, satire, novels, dystopias) written by one of the greatest living writers, Margaret Atwood. We consider the usefulness of comparative discussion of Atwood's sources (from Homer to Shakespeare to Orwell's 1984), and we employ a human rights framework in discussing her entertaining writings. A sequence of shorter writing assignments lead to a research paper, composed in stages. (HL) Keen.

          Fall 2017, ENGL 299B-01: Seminar for Prospective Majors: The Lord of the Rings from Page to Screen (3). J.R.R. Tolkien's epic novels and historical fantasies along with Peter Jackson's spectacular CGI film versions have together made these texts and, more important, the narrative they tell among the most significant cultural events of the 20th and 21st centuries. This course centers upon The Lord of the Rings novels and films but frames that dual achievement by looking, first, back to Tolkien's roots in 19th-century romance fiction and historical philology and, second, ahead to the important role played by Jackson's film adaptations in the development of modern CGI films. In these ways this course highlights Tolkien's larger cultural achievement, even as it provides students with a rich set of research questions and topics. (HL) Adams.


        • ENGL 392 - Topics in Literature in English before 1700
          Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
          PrerequisiteENGL 299

          Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English before 1700 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • ENGL 394 - Topics in Literature in English since 1900
          Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
          PrerequisiteENGL 299 or vary with topic

          Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English since 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Fall 2017, ENGL 394A-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: Between the Acts: The Life and Writing of Virginia Woolf (3). Virginia Woolf is one of the most important writers of the 20th century. She is best remembered for contributions to the modern British novel, but she was also an astute (and prolific) literary critic, as well as an influential feminist thinker. This course considers Woolf in context, reading her work alongside key examples of modernist fiction. Born into a world of strict Victorian morals but coming of age among the vibrant avant-garde, Woolf's life mirrors the fast-paced changes of the early 20th century, and thus her biography and her literary coterie are focal points of our discussion. In addition to canonical works like Mrs. Dalloway (1925) and To the Lighthouse (1927), we also read Between the Acts (1941) and Orlando (1928), as well as selections of Woolf's feminist theory and literary criticism. (HL) Walle.


        • ENGL 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteInstructor consent
          FacultyStaff

          A course designed for special students who wish to continue a line of study begun in an earlier advanced course. Their applications approved by the department and accepted by their proposed directors, the students may embark upon directed independent study which must culminate in acceptable papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • FREN 341 - La France de l'Ancien Régime
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteThree courses in French at the 200 level

          Readings in French literature and civilization from before the Revolution of 1789. May be repeated for degree credit if the topic is different.

          Fall 2017, FREN 341-01: Introduction à la littérature médiévale d'expression française (3). This course aims to introduce students to strategies for reading, understanding, interpreting, and discussing medieval literature written in French. We read the most important works in written medieval Francophonia (including Northern France, Italy, England, and the Holy Land) and explore how these narrative traditions continue to inform our cultural imaginary today. Students acquire a general timeline of medieval history through a series of student-centered presentations. Topics range from gender studies, manuscript studies, history, chivalry, the notion of the quest, beasts and dragons, and the way the Middle Ages are read and reused today. Texts include excerpts from La Chanson de Roland; the Roman de Renart; the Quatre fils Aymon; the Roman de Silence; and the Roman de Perceval. All course discussion, content, and student work is entirely in French, and we continue to review advanced stylistics in French through written compositions. (HL) McCormick.


        • FREN 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteAt least nine credits of 300-level French and consent of the department head. Taught In French

          Nature and content of course to be determined by students' needs and by instructors acquainted with their earlier preparation and performance. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • ITAL 403 - Directed Individual Study
          FDRHL: only when the subject is literary
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the department head

          Advanced study in Italian. The nature and content of the course is determined by the students' needs and by an evaluation of their previous work. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • LIT 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. Completion of FW FDR requirement

          First-year seminar.


        • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation
          FDRHL
          Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
          PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement

          A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MRST 395 - Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Studies
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteInstructor consent
          FacultyStaff

          A seminar concentrating on topics or concepts relevant to Medieval and Renaissance studies. Topics are offered according to the interests of participating faculty. This course may be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MRST 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the instructor
          FacultyStaff

          Individual study of selected topics in Medieval and Renaissance studies. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • ROML 295 - Topics in Romance Languages
          Credits1-3
          Prerequisitevary with topic

          Nature and content of the course is determined by the interests of the instructor(s) and student(s). May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


           


        • SPAN 397 - Peninsular Seminar
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteSPAN 220 and SPAN 275

          A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. The specific topic will be determined jointly according to student interest and departmental approval. Recent topics have included "The Female Voice in Hispanic Literature", "19th- and 20th-Century Spanish drama", "Women Writers of the Golden Age", and "Romanticism and the Generation of '98". May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Fall 2017, SPAN 397A-01: Representaciones de la Guerra Civil Española (3).  This seminar examines the fundamental importance of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) in literary and visual texts of the Franco and contemporary periods of Spain. Through readings of these literary and visual texts, students come to understand the evolution of often conflicting histories, ideologies, obsessions, and artistic notions surrounding the war itself and its consequences. After a review of the events leading up to the Spanish Civil War and of the prelude to the Second World War, we observe how the themes and issues of the war manifest in fiction, poetry, film, and other visual texts. We pay particular attention to the Franco regime, the pact of silence, and the desire to uncover the past in myriad ways. Literature includes works by Federico García Lorca, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Carmen Laforet, Alberto Méndez, and Mercè Rodoreda. Visual texts include posters, newspapers, letters, government documents, documentaries, fictional films, and NO-DO reels from the Franco era. (HL) Mayock.


        • SPAN 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteAt least nine credits of 300-level Spanish and permission of the department head. Taught in Spanish
          FacultyStaff

          Nature and content of course to be determined by students' needs and by instructors acquainted with their earlier preparation and performance. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • History of Ideas:
      • ARTH 385 - Leonardo da Vinci: Art, Science and Innovation in Renaissance Europe
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        FacultyBent

        Leonardo da Vinci has for years been considered the consummate "Renaissance Man," equally skilled as a painter, anatomist, engineer, and military scientist. This course examines the contextual background from which this true genius was sprung, the works he produced, the people for whom he produced them, and the visions of the artist both realized and unrealized that have captured the imaginations of people around the world since Leonardo's death in 1519.


      • HIST 306 - Seminar: Politics and Providence: Medieval and Renaissance Political Thought
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyPeterson

        How did religion shape politics and the development of political institutions in the Middle Ages? This seminar surveys the evolution of political thought from St. Augustine to Machiavelli. We examine Christianity's providential view of history, church-state relations, scholasticism, the revivals of Greek and Roman philosophy, humanism, and the origins of the modern state. Readings include St. Augustine, John of Salisbury, St. Thomas Aquinas, Marsilius of Padua, Leonardo Bruni, and Niccolò Machiavelli.

         


      • HIST 307 - Politics and History: The Machiavellian Moment
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        FacultyPeterson

        Is it better to be loved or feared? How much of our destiny do we control? When are societies fit for self-rule? Can people be forced to be good? Niccolò Machiavelli, arguably the first and most controversial modern political theorist, raises issues of universal human and political concern. Yet he did so in a very specific context--the Florence of the Medici, Michelangelo, and Savonarola--at a time when Renaissance Italy stood at the summit of artistic brilliance and on the threshold of political collapse. We draw on Machiavelli's personal, political, historical, and literary writings, and readings in history and art, as a point of entry for exploring Machiavelli's republican vision of history and politics as he developed it in the Italian Renaissance and how it addresses such perennial issues as the corruption and regeneration of societies.

         


      • PHIL 221 - Plato
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultySmith

        An in-depth examination of the philosophy of Plato. We look at Plato's epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of mind, ethics, and political philosophy through a careful analysis of several dialogues, including some or all of the following: Euthyphro, Laches, Apology, Gorgias, Meno, Phaedo, Symposium, Phaedrus, and Republic. In addition, we consider certain challenges posed by Plato's use of the dialogue form, such as whether we are justified in assuming that Socrates is a mouthpiece for Plato's own views, and how we should interpret Plato's frequent appeal to myths and other literary devices within his dialogues. 


      • PHIL 222 - Aristotle
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        A study of Aristotle's comprehensive philosophy of man and nature, including his logic, physics, metaphysics, psychology, ethics, and aesthetics.


      • REL 108 - The Qur'an
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent required
        FacultyStaff

        This course approaches the Qur'an from a range of modern and pre-modern perspectives: as an oral recitation; as a material object; as a historical document; as a literary text; as it relates to the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament; as a foundation for Islamic law, theology and mysticism; and as a source for ethics and social activism. Particular attention is devoted to issues of gender and politics raised by the Qur'an, supplemented by a number of film screenings. Prior knowledge of Islam is not required.


      • REL 215 - Female and Male in Western Religious Traditions
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBrown

        An investigation of views about the body, human sexuality, and gender in Western religious traditions, especially Judaism and Christianity, and of the influences of these views both on the religious traditions themselves and on the societies in which they develop. The course focuses on religion and society in antiquity and the Middle Ages, but also considers the continuing influence of religious constructions of the body and sexuality on succeeding generations to the present.


      • REL 250 - Early Christian Thought: Orthodoxy and Heresy
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBrown

        An exploration of the uncertain boundaries between orthodoxy and heresy in early Christian movements. Questions addressed include, "Who decides what is orthodox and what is heretical, how are these decisions made, and what impact do they have on institutional structures? What perennial problems in Christian thought and practice emerge in the early debates about orthodoxy and heresy, and how are those problems being addressed today?" Readings include selections from the Hebrew Scriptures, the New Testament, "Gnostic gospels" and other so-called heretical texts, writings from the Church Fathers (with special attention to St. Augustine) and recent scholarly treatments of orthodoxy and heresy.


      • REL 283 - Sufism: Islamic Mysticism
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        This course explores the mystical expressions and institutions known as Sufism within the Islamic community. Topics include the elaboration of Sufism from the core tenets of Islam; Sufi practices of ecstasy and discipline; the artistic and literary products of the Sufi experience; the institutions of Sufi orders, saints, shrines, and popular practices; and the debates among Muslims over the place of Sufism within the greater tradition of Islam.


      • CLAS 200 - Greek Art & Archaeology
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyLaughy

        An introduction to ancient Greek art and archaeology. We encounter some of the greatest works of art in human history, as we survey the development of painting, sculpture, architecture, and town planning of the ancient Greeks. We encounter the history of the people behind the objects that they left behind, from the material remains of the Bronze Age palaces and Classical Athenian Acropolis to the world created in the wake of Alexander the Great's conquests. We also consider how we experience the ancient Greek world today through archaeological practice, cultural heritage, and the antiquities trade.


      • CLAS 204 - Augustan Era
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyCarlisle

        An interdisciplinary course taught in English, using the tools of literature, history and art to examine a specific, complicated, and pivotally important period in the evolution of western culture, focused on the literary. Readings from the poets predominate (Virgil's Aeneid and Ovid's Metamorphosis, selections from Horace, Propertius, Tibullus and other poems of Ovid) and also including readings from ancient historians dealing with Augustus and the major events of his period (e.g., Suetonius, Plutarch, and Tacitus on such topics as Actium and problems of succession). The topic for each lecture is illustrated with slides of works of art and architecture from the period. Selections from historians and from material remains are chosen according to intersection points with the literature.


      • CLAS 210 - Sex, Gender and Power in Ancient Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        What does it mean to be a woman or a man and what power dynamic exists between the two genders? Definitions of gender and gender roles are not a modern phenomenon but have their origins in antiquity. Both literary and visual sources reveal to us the constant puzzling over issues of gender that preoccupied the ancient Greeks and Romans. In this course, we examine sources from various genres and media for example, philosophy, epic, drama, poetry, history, painting, and sculpture in an attempt to understand the various ways the Greeks and Romans conceived of gender. Readings include primary sources from antiquity (e.g., Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides, Plato, Terence, Cicero, Livy), as well as secondary sources from modern scholarship on gender in antiquity.


      • CLAS 221 - Plato
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultySmith

        An in-depth examination of the philosophy of Plato.  We look at Plato's epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of mind, ethics, and political philosophy through a careful analysis of several dialogues, including some or all of the following:  Euthyphro, Laches, Apology, Gorgias, Meno, Phaedo, Symposium, Phaedrus, and Republic.  In addition, we consider certain challenges posed by Plato's use of the dialogue form, such as whether we are justified in assuming that Socrates is a mouthpiece for Plato's own views, and how we should interpret Plato's frequent appeal to myths and other literary devices within his dialogues.


      • FREN 341 - La France de l'Ancien Régime
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteThree courses in French at the 200 level

        Readings in French literature and civilization from before the Revolution of 1789. May be repeated for degree credit if the topic is different.

        Fall 2017, FREN 341-01: Introduction à la littérature médiévale d'expression française (3). This course aims to introduce students to strategies for reading, understanding, interpreting, and discussing medieval literature written in French. We read the most important works in written medieval Francophonia (including Northern France, Italy, England, and the Holy Land) and explore how these narrative traditions continue to inform our cultural imaginary today. Students acquire a general timeline of medieval history through a series of student-centered presentations. Topics range from gender studies, manuscript studies, history, chivalry, the notion of the quest, beasts and dragons, and the way the Middle Ages are read and reused today. Texts include excerpts from La Chanson de Roland; the Roman de Renart; the Quatre fils Aymon; the Roman de Silence; and the Roman de Perceval. All course discussion, content, and student work is entirely in French, and we continue to review advanced stylistics in French through written compositions. (HL) McCormick.


      • HIST 200 - Dante: Renaissance and Redemption
        FDRHU
        Credits4
        FacultyPeterson

        A survey of the culture, society, and politics of early Renaissance Italy using the life of the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) and his Divine Comedy. This period witnessed revolutions in Florence and Rome and the emergence of new artistic forms aimed at reconciling Christian beliefs with classical thought, notably that of the Greek philosopher Aristotle and the Roman poet Virgil. It also generated conflicts between popes, kings, and emperors that issued ultimately in modern European states. First, we survey Dante's historical setting using a chronicle by one of his contemporaries, Dino Compagni. We then follow Dante on his poetic pilgrimage of personal and collective redemption through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven as he synthesized the artistic, religious, philosophical and political challenges of his age.


      • PHIL 110 - Ancient Greek Philosophy
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyTaylor

        An examination of the metaphysics of the pre-Socratic philosophers, especially the Milesians, Pythagoras, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, and the Atomists, and the ethics and political philosophy of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Topics include the origin and nature of the kosmos, the nature and existence of the god(s), the trial and execution of Socrates, theories of virtue, the nature of knowledge and truth, justice and the ideal state, the nature of eudaimonia (happiness, flourishing), and the possibility of akrasia (weakness of the will).


      • REL 101 - Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarks

        An introduction to the history, literature and interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament).


      • REL 102 - New Testament
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyBrown

        An introduction to the history, literature and interpretation of the New Testament.


      • REL 105 - Introduction to Islam
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        This course familiarizes students with the foundations of the Islamic tradition and the diverse historical and geographical manifestations of belief and practice built upon those foundations. Throughout the course, the role of Islam in shaping cultural, social, gender, and political identities is explored. Readings are drawn from the writings of both historical and contemporary Muslim thinkers.


      • REL 106 - Judaism: Tradition and Modernity
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarks

        Through a variety of sources, including Talmudic debate, fiction, drama, liturgy, memoirs, film, and history, this course introduces the main concepts, literature, and practices of the classical forms of Judaism that began in the first centuries C.E., and then examines how Judaism has changed during the past two centuries, in modernist movements (Reform, Neo-Orthodoxy, Zionism) and contemporary fundamentalist movements (Ultra-Orthodoxy, messianic settler Zionism), as well as current ideas and issues.


      • REL 131 - Buddhism
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyHyne-Sutherland

        A survey of the historical development of the doctrines and practices of Buddhism. After a discussion of the Hindu origins of Buddhism, the course focuses on the development of the Theravada, Vajrayana and Mahayana traditions. A class trip to at least one Buddhist center is included.


      • REL 132 - God and Goddess in Hinduism
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        This course explores the many ways in which Hindus visualize and talk about the divine and its manifestations in the world through mythic stories, use of images in worship, explanations of the nature of the soul and body in relation to the divine, and the belief in human embodiments of the divine in Hindu holy men and women. Topics include: the religious meanings of masculine and feminine in the divine and human contexts; the idea of local, family, and "chosen" divinities; and differing forms of Hindu devotion for men and women.


      • REL 216 - Sainthood in Four Traditions
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        A survey of sainthood in a variety of religious contexts: Christian, Islamic, Hindu, Buddhist. The course asks: "What makes someone holy? How do saints behave? How and why are they worshipped?" Readings include sacred biographies (hagiographies), studies of particular traditions of saint worship, and interpretations of sainthood in both theological and cross-cultural perspectives.


      • REL 219 - Augustine and the Literature of Self, Soul, and Synapses
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
        FacultyKosky

        A careful reading of the depiction of the restless soul in Augustine's Confessions is followed by study of fictional, philosophical, religious, and/or scientific literature. Students reflect on the state of the soul in a world made of selves or the fate of the self in a soulless world ... and whether there might be other options


      • REL 225 - Magic, Science, and Religion
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyLubin

        How do religious and scientific explanations and methods of inquiry differ? What are the roles of reason and authority in each case? This course draws together materials from antiquity to the present, from the West and from Asia, to illustrate a variety of types of "systems of knowledge." Theoretical readings are balanced with diverse case studies from diverse contexts: religious doctrines, mystical practices, alchemy, astrology, sorcery, "traditional medicines," and modern religious movements. Students research a system of their choice and analyze its claims and methods in comparison with those of other traditions covered in the course.


      • REL 260 - Seminar in the Christian Tradition
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        An introduction to perduring issues in Christian theology and ethics through study of one or more of the classical Christian theologians. Fall 2017 topic: Christian Mysticism and Visionary Traditions, exploring diverse Christian sources from antiquity to modernity with a focus on experiences and expressions of the "presence of God," the "Ground of Being," the "wholly other," the "beatific vision," etc. Course materials include primary sources from mystics and visionaries and secondary readings exploring theories about mystical experience. Near the end of the course, students consider contemporary and even secular expression in poetry and music that points to the mystical without using traditional theological language. A field trip to a monastery helps to contextualize some themes we encounter in the course.


      • REL 284 - Gender, Sexuality, and Islam
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        How have issues of gender and sexuality in Medieval and Modern Islamic societies been debated across the Middle East, South Asia, and the West? Students examine scholarly and public discussions of gender and Islam, and they build a vocabulary in which to talk about women. queer, and intersex history as they concern Muslim societies and their foundational sources in their regional and historical contexts. No prior knowledge of Islam is necessary.


      • REL 350 - Seminar in Biblical Studies
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteREL 101, 102, 151 250, or course work in ancient history or classics, or instructor consent

        An exploration of a topic in Biblical studies, focusing on ancient texts and their interpreters from antiquity to the present. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • And, when appropriate:
        • FREN 283 - Histoire des idées
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164 or equivalent
          FacultyStaff

          This course retraces the evolution of thought in France across centuries through the examination of intellectual, cultural and artistic movements. Readings, discussions and paper in French for further development of communication skills.


        • FREN 285 - Spring Term Topics in French Civilization
          Credits4
          PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent

          A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization through direct experience abroad in France and/or Francophone countries. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MRST 395 - Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Studies
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteInstructor consent
          FacultyStaff

          A seminar concentrating on topics or concepts relevant to Medieval and Renaissance studies. Topics are offered according to the interests of participating faculty. This course may be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MRST 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the instructor
          FacultyStaff

          Individual study of selected topics in Medieval and Renaissance studies. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • PHIL 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-Year class standing

          A seminar for first-year students.

          Fall 2017, PHIL 180-01: Philosophy of Education: Why Are We Here? (3). First-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-Year class standing. What is education? Which purposes can and should it serve? What obligations do private colleges have to the communities and societies in which they operate? These questions about the nature of education are essential to philosophy, and also to the history and future of Washington and Lee University. In this course, students read and discuss classic texts in the philosophy of education in close conjunction with materials concerning the public policy commentaries about present practices in American liberal arts colleges. Special attention is paid to Washington and Lee, and students are encouraged to reflect upon their own educational goals and choices in light of the philosophical works that they read. (HU) Dudley, Strong.

          Fall 2017, PHIL 180-02: FS: Equality and Difference (3). First-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing only. How should differences affect equal treatment? Do we treat persons equally in light of their differences or in spite of them? These questions, among others, motivate our study. We first explore why equality matters and then seek to determine what equal treatment might look like in particular contexts (applied philosophy). After some theoretical background, we ask how we should distribute benefits in light of differences in well-being when we have a finite supply of resources, followed by an examination of how bad luck affects equal treatment. Other topics include distribution of health care resources, and commonly discussed differences in public life, relying on legal cases and op-eds as well as academic articles, including debates surrounding what equal treatment with regard to race and gender means in education and the military. (HU) Henzel.


        • PHIL 395 - Advanced Seminar
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteUsually one course in philosophy other than PHIL 170. Varies by topic

          An intensive and critical study of selected issues or major figures in philosophy. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Fall 2017, PHIL 395A-01: Environmentalism in the Anthropocene (3).  No prerequisites. Students may not also register for ENV 395A-01. Many people believe we have entered a new geological epoch: The Anthropocene, or Age of Human Domination. Some of the central questions explored in this seminar include: What does it mean to be an environmentalist in the Anthropocene? Are the traditional goals of wilderness preservation and conservation of biodiversity still appropriate? Should conservation biology shift its goals in the direction of conserving valuable ecosystem goods and services? Should our attitudes towards introduced and/or invasive species be transformed?  Should we assist the migration of species that are unable to respond on their own to the habitat shifts that will result from global warming? Has the planet become, in effect, one large human garden to be managed as best we can?  (HU) Cooper


        • PHIL 195 - Seminar in a Philosophical Topic
          FDRHU
          Credits3

          A consideration of selected issues in philosophy. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • PHIL 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the department
          FacultyStaff

          May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • POL 396 - Seminar in Political Philosophy
          FDRSS2
          Credits3 in fall and winter, 4 in spring
          PrerequisitePOL 111 or instructor consent

          An examination of selected questions and problems in political philosophy and/or political theory. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • POL 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteGrade-point average of 3.000 in politics and instructor consent

          This course permits a student to follow a program of directed reading, library research, or data collection and analysis in some area not covered in other courses. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • REL 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
          Credits3 credits in Fall and Winter, 4 credits in Spring
          PrerequisiteFirst-Year class standing

          First-year seminar. Topics vary by term. 

          Fall 2017, REL 180-01: FS: Perspectives on Death and Dying (3). First-year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. A comparison of ways in which various religious traditions, as well as modern secular writers, think about the meaning of life in the face of our human mortality. Students study memoirs, novels, essays, scripture, and film, and write a journal and essays. A discussion-centered course, with visits to a funeral home and cemetery. Note: Should not be repeated in the future as REL 213. (HU) Marks.


        • REL 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          FacultyStaff

          Subject to departmental approval and available departmental resources, this course provides an opportunity for individuals to pursue significant lines of independent study in the field of religion. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different.


        • ROML 295 - Topics in Romance Languages
          Credits1-3
          Prerequisitevary with topic

          Nature and content of the course is determined by the interests of the instructor(s) and student(s). May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


           


    • Fine Arts:
      • ARTH 101 - Survey of Western Art: Ancient to Medieval
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteFirst-year and sophomore standing or instructor consent
        FacultyBent

        Chronological survey of Western art from the Paleolithic Age through the Middle Ages in Italy and Northern Europe. Examination of cultural and stylistic influences in the art and architecture of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Consideration of distinct interests of Early Christian, Byzantine, and Medieval Europe. Focus on major monuments and influential images produced up to circa 1400.


      • ARTH 102 - Survey of Western Art: Renaissance to the Present
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyKing, Lepage

        Chronological survey of Western art from the Renaissance through the present. Topics include the Renaissance, from its cultural and stylistic origins through the Mannerist movement; the Baroque and Rococo; the Neoclassical reaction; Romanticism and Naturalism; the Barbizon School and Realism; Impressionism and its aftermath; Fauvism, Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop, Minimalism, and the Postmodern reaction to Modernism.


      • ARTH 253 - Medieval Art in Southern Europe
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyBent

        Examination of the art and culture of Italy and Greece from the rise of Christianity to the first appearance of bubonic plague in 1348. Topics include early Christian art and architecture; Byzantine imagery in Ravenna and Constantinople during the Age of Justinian; iconoclasm; mosaics in Greece, Venice and Sicily; sculpture in Pisa; and the development of panel and fresco painting in Rome, Florence, Siena and Assisi.


      • ARTH 254 - Medieval Art in Northern Europe
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyBent

        Survey of the art of France, Spain, Germany, and the British Isles from circa 700 to circa 1400. Discussions include Carolingian and Ottonian painting and architecture, Celtic and Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, and French cathedral design and decoration during the Romanesque and Gothic periods.


      • ARTH 255 - Northern Renaissance Art
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyBent

        A survey of Northern painting from 1300 to 1600, examined as symbols of political, religious, and social concerns of painters, patrons, and viewers. Among the artists covered are Campin, van Eyck, van der Weyden, Dürer, Holbein, and Brueghel. Emphasis placed on interpretation of meaning and visual analysis.


      • ARTH 256 - Italian Renaissance Art
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyBent

        Survey of the art and architecture of Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. The course focuses on innovations of the Early, High, and Late Renaissance through the work of Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Alberti, Leonardo, Bramante, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Images are considered as exponents of contemporary political, social, and religious events and perceptions.


      • ARTH 350 - Medieval Art in Italy
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteARTH 253 or 256 or instructor consent
        FacultyBent

        Art and architecture of the Italian peninsula, from circa 1200 to 1400. This seminar addresses issues of patronage, artistic training and methods of production, iconography, and the function of religious and secular imagery. Topics of discussion include the construction of Tuscan cathedrals and civic buildings; sculpture in Siena, Pisa, and Rome; and painting in Assisi, Padua, and Florence.


      • ARTH 354 - The Early Renaissance in Italy
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyBent

        Examination of the intellectual, cultural, and artistic movements dominant in Florence between ca. 1400 and ca. 1440. Images and structures produced by Ghiberti, Brunelleschi, Masaccio, Donatello, and Fra Angelico are considered within the context of Florentine social traditions and political events.


      • ARTH 355 - The High Renaissance in Italy
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteARTH 256 or instructor consent
        FacultyBent

        This seminar addresses issues of patronage, artistic production, criticism and art theory, and the uses and abuses of images during the High Renaissance. Works by Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael and Bramante are considered as emblems of larger cultural movements popular in Italian courts between 1470 and 1520.


      • ARTH 384 - Renaissance Art in Venice
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteARTH 102 or 256
        FacultyBent

        This course addresses issues of patronage, artistic production, uses of ancient themes and sources, criticism and art theory, and the uses and abuses of images during the High Renaissance. We focus our attention on the art and architecture of Northern Italy from about 1460 to 1575, with particular emphasis placed on images and structures produced in Venice and its territorial possessions ("The Veneto") and by those who considered la serennissima their home.


      • MUS 201 - Music History I
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyGaylard

        A survey of music from the Middle Ages through the Baroque period.


      • THTR 210 - Ancient and Global Theater
        FDRHL
        Credits3
        FacultySandberg, Levy

        This course examines the history of theater and dramatic literature from its foundations in ancient world cultures through the Renaissance. Since this history course covers over 2000 years of time, class meetings sometimes move at a fast pace. Students gain a general world-wide cultural understanding of the art and history of the theater from its beginnings, and how theater spread as a phenomenon across the globe. Since theater is primarily a cultural institution, we simultaneously examine politics, philosophy, religion, science, and other factors that influence how the art form is created, maintained, and culturally preserved. We also examine history itself as an important cultural tool for assessing the events of the past.

         

         

         


      • THTR 341 - Acting 3: Styles
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteTHTR 141 or instructor consent

        An advanced acting class focused on performing the work of a particular playwright or playwrights. In this course, students enhance their scene work by examining the theatrical and historical context in which the plays were written, thereby achieving a deeper understanding of a performance style other than contemporary realism. Topics change regularly. May be repeated twice for degree credit if the topics are different. 


      • And, when appropriate:
        • ARTH 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

          Topics vary by term.


        • ARTH 394 - Seminar in Art History
          FDRHA
          Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
          PrerequisiteThree credits in art history and instructor consent

          Research in selected topics in art history with written and oral reports. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • ARTH 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the department
          FacultyStaff

          Individual or class study of special topics in art history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • FILM 195 - Topics in Film Studies
          FDRHA
          Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
          PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement, and other prerequisites may vary with topic

          Selected topic in film studies, focused on one or more of film history, theory, production, or screenwriting. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • FILM 196 - Topics in Film and Literature
          FDRHL
          Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
          PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR requirement, and other prerequisites may vary with topic

          Selected topics in film and literature. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MRST 395 - Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Studies
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteInstructor consent
          FacultyStaff

          A seminar concentrating on topics or concepts relevant to Medieval and Renaissance studies. Topics are offered according to the interests of participating faculty. This course may be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MRST 403 - Directed Individual Study
          Credits3
          PrerequisitePermission of the instructor
          FacultyStaff

          Individual study of selected topics in Medieval and Renaissance studies. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • MUS 423 - Directed Individual Project
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteMusic major and instructor consent
          FacultyStaff

          May be repeated for degree credit with permission.


        • ROML 295 - Topics in Romance Languages
          Credits1-3
          Prerequisitevary with topic

          Nature and content of the course is determined by the interests of the instructor(s) and student(s). May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


           


        • THTR 121 - Script Analysis for Stage and Screen
          FDRHL
          Credits3
          FacultySandberg, Levy, Collins, Evans

          The study of selected plays and screenplays from the standpoint of the theatre and screen artists. Emphasis on thorough examination of the scripts preparatory to production. This course is focused on developing script analysis skills directly applicable to work in production. Students work collaboratively in various creative capacities to transform texts into productions.


        • THTR 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

          First-year seminar.


  4. A directed study or thesis in another discipline may e used to meet this requirement if approved in advance by the MRST Advisory Committee through its chair.

    • MRST 403 - Directed Individual Study
      Credits3
      PrerequisitePermission of the instructor
      FacultyStaff

      Individual study of selected topics in Medieval and Renaissance studies. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • MRST 473 - Senior Thesis
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteSenior standing, consent of the program head and the major adviser
      FacultyStaff

      Individual research devoted to an original topic dealing with issues pertinent to Medieval and Renaissance studies. The focus of this thesis should coincide with the area of study in which the student has done the most work and should be grounded in interdisciplinary themes. Projects should be approved no later than September 30 of the senior year.


    • or
    • MRST 493 - Honors Thesis (3-3)
      Credits3-3
      PrerequisiteSenior standing, cumulative grade-point average of 3.300, and consent of the MRST head
      FacultyStaff

      Honors thesis devoted to a specialized topic in Medieval and Renaissance studies. Applications for honors should be submitted to the program head no later than March 1 of the junior year.