Environmental Studies Major Requirements

2019 - 2020 Catalog

Environmental Studies major leading to BA degree

A major in environmental studies leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 41 credits, which must include at least three credits at the 300-level or above in addition to the capstone. Students also undertake an experiential-learning activity. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in environmental studies.

  1. Required courses: ENV 110, ENV 111, 201, 202, 203, INTR 201
  2. Statistics: either BIOL 201 or INTR 202
  3. Advanced Quantitative Skills: one course chosen from the following list. This course may also be used when included in an elective track below. BIOL 282, 322, 325; ECON 203; GEOL 260
  4. Electives: Complete one elective track below or design one with prior approval from the Environmental Studies core faculty. No more than three courses completed in any elective track may be used to satisfy requirements in another major. Student-designed elective tracks must be proposed and approved before the end of the student's junior (third) year.
  5. Capstone: Take either ENV 397 or 493
  6. Experience: A relevant internship, study abroad, research project, or other experiential learning activity approved in advance by the head of the major.

    Elective Tracks:

Conservation Biology (5 courses, at least 16 credits)
a. Advanced ecology foundations: one course chosen from BIOL 217, 245, 332
b. Advanced social science foundations: one course chosen from ECON 255, 257, 259; POL 233
c. Three additional courses chosen from BIOL 217, 241, 242, 243, 245, 322, 325, 330, 332; ENV 250; and when appropriate and approved in advance, BIOL 195, 398; ENV 295

Climate Change (6 courses, at least 18 credits)
a. Required: GEOL 141
b. Science: three courses chosen from the following, including one laboratory course (indicated by *): BIOL 325*, 330*; GEOL 150, 155, 205, 260*
c. Human Dimensions: two courses chosen from ACCT 303; BUS 355; ECON 255, 259, 356; PHIL 150, POL 105, 233

Environmental Economics (7 courses, at least 21 credits)
a. Required: ECON 100, 203, 255
b. Ethics: one course chosen from BUS 345; ENV 365 (PHIL 365); PHIL 150
c. Three additional courses chosen from BIOL 325; ECON 257, 259, 280, 286 (SOAN 286), 302, 356; and when appropriate and approved in advance, ECON 295, 395

Environmental Humanities (5 courses, at least 15 credits)
a. Philosophy / Ethics: Either ENV 365 (PHIL 365) or PHIL 150
b. Religion / Sociology & Anthropology: one course chosen from REL 207, 224 (SOAN 224), 285 (SOAN 285)
c. Literature and Arts: one course chosen from ARTS 233, 234, or ENGL 207, or when appropriate and approved in advance, ENGL 293, 393, 394
d. Two additional courses chosen from ARTS 233, 234; ECON 286 (SOAN 286); ENGL 207; ENV 250, 395; HIST 288; PHIL 150; REL 207, 224 (SOAN 224), 285 (SOAN 285), or when appropriate and approved in advance, ENGL 293, 393, 394

Water Resources (5 courses, at least 17 credits)
a. Human Dimensions: two courses chosen from ECON 255, 257, 259, 286 (SOAN 286); ENV 250; PHIL 150; POL 233; SOAN 285; and when appropriate and approved in advance, ENV 365 (PHIL 365)
b. Science: three courses chosen from the following, including two laboratory courses (indicated by *): BIOL 217*; GEOL 141, 150, 155, 231*, 240*, 247*, 260* (with water-resources course project), 311*, and when appropriate and approved in advance, BIOL 195; ECON 288, 395; ENV 295; GEOL 105, 373

Student-Designed Elective Track
Students majoring in environmental studies may propose a self-designed series of "elective" courses that focuses on a particular theme relevant to their individual educational objectives. Students should consult with faculty members in Environmental Studies when developing this proposal and present it to the head of the Environmental Studies Program, along with the major declaration form no later than February 1 of the junior year (though we recommend that students submit proposals in their sophomore year). One of the core or affiliate faculty members in Environmental Studies must be willing to serve as the student's adviser in the major and provide a letter of support for the proposal. Proposals must be approved by the Environmental Studies faculty before the end of the junior year.

  1. Required courses:
  2.  

    • ENV 110 - Introduction to Environmental Studies
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year or sophomore standing or instructor consent
      FacultyKahn

      An interdisciplinary introduction to environmental studies with an emphasis on how societies organize themselves through their social, political and economic institutions to respond to environmental problems. The course begins with a discussion of the development of environmental thought, focusing on the relationship between humans and the environment. Participants then discuss alternative criteria for environmental decision making, including sustainability, equity, ecological integrity, economic efficiency, and environmental justice. The course concludes with an examination of contemporary environmental issues, including global warming, invasive species, energy and the environment, tropical deforestation, and the relationship between the environment and economic development in developing countries.


    • ENV 111 - Environmental Service Learning
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteENV 110 and instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Practical application of student knowledge of environmental issues based on supervised volunteer work in the greater Rockbridge community. Students will participate in a service-learning environment. Topics will include environmental education, campus sustainability, conservation and sustainable agriculture in the surrounding region. The course culminates with a paper integrating students' knowledge with practical application throughout the term.


    • ENV 201 - Environmental Science
      FDRSC
      Credits3
      Prerequisiteor corequisite: ENV 110. Restricted to ENV majors or minors, or others by instructor consent
      FacultyHamilton

      A foundation in the natural sciences for environmental studies students, this course introduces foundational concepts in earth ecological sciences and their application in understanding human-environment relationships. Local, regional, and global environmental case studies are considered.


    • ENV 202 - Society and Natural Resources
      FDRSS1
      Credits3
      Prerequisiteor co-requisite: ENV 110 and declared major or minor in environmental studies
      FacultyKahn

      A foundation in the natural sciences for environmental studies students, this course emphasizes understanding how socio-economic conditions are studied to inform and shape environmental policy. Local, regional, and global environmental case studies are considered.


    • ENV 203 - Environmental Humanities
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      Prerequisiteor co-requisite: ENV 110 and declared major or minor in environmental studies
      FacultyStaff

      An introduction to the examination of human-environment relationships arising from the humanities, this course draws broadly upon the fields of philosophy, history, cultural anthropology, eco-criticism, art and art history, and the emerging interdisciplinary field of environmental humanities. Students receive a broad introduction to humanist perspectives on environmental challenges and solutions and preparation for examining specific fields in greater depth later in their studies.


    • INTR 201 - Information Technology Literacy
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteFirst-year or sophomore standing
      FacultyBallenger

      Pass/Fail only. Available to all students, required of all Williams School majors. MUST be completed by the beginning of the fall term of the junior year. Through the use of interactive online tutorials, students gain proficiency in and a working knowledge of five distinct areas of information technology literacy: Windows Operating System, spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel), word processing (Microsoft Word), presentation software (Microsoft PowerPoint), and basic networking (the Washington and Lee network, basic Web browsing, and Microsoft Outlook). Lessons, exercises, practice exams and exams mix online efforts and hands-on activities. Additional fee required.


  3. Statistics:
  4. take either:

    • BIOL 201 - Statistics for Biology and Medicine
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
      FacultyMarsh

      This course examines the principles of statistics and experimental design for biological and medical research. The focus is on the practical and conceptual aspects of statistics, rather than mathematical derivations. Students completing this class will be able to read and understand research papers, to design realistic experiments, and to carry out their own statistical analyses using computer packages.


    • or

    • INTR 202 - Applied Statistics
      Credits3

      Not open to students with credit for DCI 202 or ECON 202. An examination of the principal applications of statistics in accounting, business, economics, and politics. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis.

       


  5. Advanced Quantitative Skills:
  6. take one course chosen from the following list. This course may also be used when included in an elective track below.

    • BIOL 282 - Problem Solving in Biological Systems: A Modeling Approach
      FDRSL
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteMATH 101
      FacultyToporikova

      Biological systems are incredibly complex and include multiple interactions, which makes them hard to understand and to predict the outcomes. In this course, students learn how to solve complex problems inspired by biological systems
      using a modeling approach. Students learn to identify most essential elements of biological systems, construct the
      verbal and graphical models, translate them to a computational software, and make predictions that are relevant for
      health policy, conservation efforts, or experimental outcomes. The topics include spread of infectious diseases,
      population dynamics, physiology, and neuroscience. Laboratory course.


    • BIOL 322 - Conservation Genetics
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 220 or instructor consent
      FacultyCabe

      A study of the central issues of population genetics and their application to species preservation and conservation. Topics include genetic surveys of rare or threatened species; population structure and dispersal; inferring population histories from genetic data; phylogenetics of threatened species' groups; hybridization between species; the use of genetic data in captive breeding programs and the prosecution of endangered species legislation; and the use of biotechnologies, such as cloning.


    • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteMATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent
      FacultyHumston

      This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.


    • ECON 203 - Econometrics
      Credits3
      Prerequisite

      Prerequisite: ECON 202 or INTR 202 or consent of instructor or department head.

      FacultyAnderson, Blunch

      Explorations of regression models that relate a response variable to one or more predictor variables. The course begins with a review of the simple bivariate model used in INTR 202, and moves on to multivariate models. Underlying model assumptions and consequences are discussed. Advanced topics include non-linear regression and forecasting. Examples in each class are drawn from a number of disciplines. The course emphasizes the use of data and student-directed research.


    • GEOL 260 - GIS and Remote Sensing
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteGEOL 100 or GEOL 101. For GEOL or ENV majors only, or by instructor consent
      FacultyHarbor

      A laboratory course introducing the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing in geological/environmental analyses and decision making. Students use state-of-the-art software with a wide variety of spatial geologic, environmental, economic and topographic data derived from satellites; remote databases and published maps to evaluate geologic conditions; local landscape processes; environmental conditions; and hypothetical land-use cases.


  7. Electives:
  8. complete one elective track below or design one with prior approval from the Environmental Studies core faculty. No more than three courses completed in any elective track may be used to satisfy requirements in another major. Student-designed elective tracks must be proposed and approved before the end of the student's junior (third) year.

  9. Capstone:
  10. Take either:

    • ENV 397 - Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteENV 110 and completion of any two of the three remaining areas for the Program in Environmental Studies, and instructor consent. ENV 396 is strongly encouraged as preparation
      FacultyStaff

      An interdisciplinary capstone course intended for students in the environmental studies program. Students analyze a particular environmental issue and attempt to integrate scientific inquiry, political and economic analysis and ethical implications. The particular issue changes each year.


    • or

    • ENV 493 - Honors Thesis in Environmental Studies
      Credits3-3
      PrerequisiteSenior standing, honors candidacy, and consent of the environmental studies faculty
      FacultyStaff

      Honors Thesis.


  11. Experience:
  12. A relevant internship, study abroad, research project, or other experiential learning activity approved in advance by the head of the major.

  13. Conservation Biology Elective Track
  14. (5 courses, at least 16 credits)

    • Advanced ecology foundations:

      take one course chosen from:

      • BIOL 217 - Aquatic Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113; MATH 101 or higher; or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the ecology of freshwater systems, with laboratory emphasis on streams and rivers in the local area. It includes a review of the physical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems as well as current issues relating to their conservation. Laboratory activities focus around monitoring the impacts of current stream restoration efforts in local watersheds.


      • BIOL 245 - Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyHurd

        An introduction to the study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Topics are arranged hierarchically: a) evolution and elementary population genetics; b) population dynamics and regulation; c) interspecific competition, predation, parasitism and symbiosis; d) community structure, energy and material flux in ecosystems. Laboratory is field oriented and investigative. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 332 - Plant Functional Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteAdditional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term
        FacultyHamilton

        The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Information regarding the specific course topic and field trip schedule is made available in the fall. Through novel research projects in a variety of field settings (e.g., on-campus, Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains, The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem), this field-based laboratory course covers topics which investigate the vital roles that plants play in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Topics focus on the responses of native plants to environmental stresses, such as global climate change (elevated temperature and carbon dioxide and drought), herbivory, and invasive species. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments using a variety of species from intact plant communities. A review of the pertinent literature is used to develop and conduct a term research project. Laboratory course.


    • Advanced social science foundations:

      take one course chosen from:

      • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 101 and instructor consent.

        FacultyCasey, Kahn

        The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


      • ECON 257 - Economics of the Chesapeake Bay: Agriculture, Recreation, Fisheries and Urban Sprawl
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101 or instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        This course examines the causes of, consequences of, and solutions to the environmental problems of the Chesapeake Bay, using economic tools in an interdisciplinary context. The course will spend approximately four days in the Chesapeake Bay area. Students work as a group to develop a plan to recover the Chesapeake Bay to promote its ecological health and the ecological services that it provides for the watershed.


      • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101 or ENV 110, and instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.


      • POL 233 - Environmental Policy and Law
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101, or POL 100
        FacultyHarris

        A study of major environmental laws and the history of their enactment and implementation. Discusses different theoretical approaches from law, ethics, politics, and economics. Reviews significant case law and the legal context. Emphasis is on domestic policy with some attention to international law and treaties.


    • Three additional courses:

      chosen from:

      • BIOL 217 - Aquatic Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113; MATH 101 or higher; or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the ecology of freshwater systems, with laboratory emphasis on streams and rivers in the local area. It includes a review of the physical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems as well as current issues relating to their conservation. Laboratory activities focus around monitoring the impacts of current stream restoration efforts in local watersheds.


      • BIOL 241 - Field Ornithology
        FDRSL
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyCabe

        This course integrates studies of bird biology with field observation and identification of local bird species. Topics covered include anatomy, taxonomy, reproduction, vocalization, migration, ecology, and evolution. Field trips to a variety of areas throughout Virginia emphasize identification skills and basic field research techniques. No other course may be taken concurrently. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 242 - Field Herpetology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent and either BIOL 111 or ENV 110
        FacultyMarsh

        Field Herpetology is a research-based course on the ecology and behavior of amphibians and reptiles. Research projects vary from year-to-year and are designed to give students plenty of time on the field and exposure to a diverse assortment of amphibian and reptile species. Students should be prepared for hiking off-trail, wading in swamps, and catching live animals.


      • BIOL 243 - Animal Behavior
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyMarsh

        An introduction to the scientific study of animal behavior, including exploration of the evolutionary basis of behavior and examination of how animals choose mates, defend territories, find food, and avoid predators. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments with a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, birds, and humans. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 245 - Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyHurd

        An introduction to the study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Topics are arranged hierarchically: a) evolution and elementary population genetics; b) population dynamics and regulation; c) interspecific competition, predation, parasitism and symbiosis; d) community structure, energy and material flux in ecosystems. Laboratory is field oriented and investigative. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 322 - Conservation Genetics
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteBIOL 220 or instructor consent
        FacultyCabe

        A study of the central issues of population genetics and their application to species preservation and conservation. Topics include genetic surveys of rare or threatened species; population structure and dispersal; inferring population histories from genetic data; phylogenetics of threatened species' groups; hybridization between species; the use of genetic data in captive breeding programs and the prosecution of endangered species legislation; and the use of biotechnologies, such as cloning.


      • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 330 - Experimental Botany: Global Climate Change
        Credits4
        FacultyHamilton

        Lectures focus on the major impacts of global climate change (elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperatures) on plant function (photosynthesis and respiration) and plant communities. Additional topics include global carbon budgets, plant carbon sequestration, and agricultural impacts. Participants review the pertinent primary literature and conduct a term-long laboratory research project. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 332 - Plant Functional Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteAdditional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term
        FacultyHamilton

        The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Information regarding the specific course topic and field trip schedule is made available in the fall. Through novel research projects in a variety of field settings (e.g., on-campus, Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains, The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem), this field-based laboratory course covers topics which investigate the vital roles that plants play in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Topics focus on the responses of native plants to environmental stresses, such as global climate change (elevated temperature and carbon dioxide and drought), herbivory, and invasive species. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments using a variety of species from intact plant communities. A review of the pertinent literature is used to develop and conduct a term research project. Laboratory course.


      • ENV 250 - Ecology of Place
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyCooper, Hurd

        Think globally, study locally. This course explores globally significant environmental issues such as biodiversity conservation, sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and environmental justice, as they are manifested on a local/regional scale. We examine interactions among ethical, ecological, and economic concerns that shape these issues. Students are fully engaged in the development of policy recommendations that could guide relevant decision makers. The course incorporates readings, field trips, films, and discussions with invited experts.


      • and when appropriate and approved in advance,

      • BIOL 195 - Topics in Biology
        Credits3 credits in Fall and Winter, 4 credits in Spring

        Topics vary with instructor and term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2019, BIOL 195A-01: Topic in Biology: Evolutionary Medicine (3). Analyzing human health through the lens of evolutionary biology can lead to a better understanding of disease and improved patient outcomes. Humans and the pathogens that infect us share a long, co-evolutionary history, and the results of treatment often depend critically upon the trajectories of within-host pathogen evolution. Many non-infectious diseases and syndromes may also be side effects of long-term human adaptation to an environment that is very different from our modern world. This course explores several topics in evolutionary medicine including the evolution of the human microbiome, human-pathogen coevolution, the evolution of drug resistance and evolutionary strategies for avoiding resistance, recent human evolution, aging, cancer, and human genomics and personalized medicine. (SC) Sackman.


      • BIOL 398 - Selected Topics in Ecology and Evolution
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisites: Vary with topic.

        Topics include ecology, behavior, evolution, and natural history of selected taxonomic groups. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, BIOL 398-01: Topics in Ecology and Evolution: Biodiversity and Conservation (3). Prerequisites: BIOL 220 and at least junior standing, or instructor consent.  The recognition late during the 20th century that global biological diversity is threatened with precipitous decline of a magnitude similar to the past five mass extinctions, has stimulated a great deal of research, as well as the emergence of a new scientific discipline: conservation ecology.  The aim of this course is to introduce you to some of the major ideas and research efforts in ecology, especially as they relate to preservation of biodiversity. Hurd

        Winter 2020, BIOL 398A-01: Topic: Modern Computational Biostatistics (3). Prerequisites: BIOL 201 or CBSC 250 or INTR 202. Instructor consent required. This second course in applied statistics focuses on modern methods for fitting models to data. The course begins with multiple regression and proceeds through random effects/mixed models, hierarchical Bayesian models, and machine learning.  Students have the opportunity to analyze their own research data where appropriate, or alternatively to choose a new data analysis project. Marsh.


      • ENV 295 - Special Topics in Environmental Studies
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisites: ENV 110 or BIOL 111.

        This courses examines special topics in environmental studies, such as ecotourism, the environment and development, local environmental issues, values and the environment, global fisheries, global climate change, tropical deforestation and similar topics of importance, which could change from year to year. This is a research-intensive course where the student would be expected to write a significant paper, either individually or as part of a group, of sufficient quality to be made useful to the scholarly and policy communities. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENV 295A-01: Special Topics in Environmental Studies: Water Policy and Politics (3). Current dynamics of conflict over water resources, and their influence on local and international policy, politics, and economics. We discuss the legality of water rights trade, conflicts of agriculture and conservation, water pollution, and the Super-PAC solution. Students investigate the ecology of susceptibility of freshwater systems to biological invasions. And we study the way the global community tackles the refugee problem stemming from diminishing fresh water in the developing world. Students follow three major international case studies to guide our investigation of water resources: (1) water rights on the Colorado, (2) industry and pollution in the Great Lakes, and (3) desertification and refugees in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bleicher.

        Fall 2019, ENV 295A-01: Special Topics in Environmental Studies:Food, Drink, and the Holocene (3). Prerequisites: ENV 110, BIOL 111, or instructor consent. How can the lessons of the last 12,000 years of human history help us make our food systems more sustainable today? This course investigates the ways people eat and drink in the Holocene (approximately 10,000 BC to now) to understand how human-environment interactions have changed through time. Using approaches drawn from archaeology and history, students examine the foodways of past societies --like the Maya, Vikings, Aztecs, early Virginians, and more -- and learn the complex stories of how and why some food systems work and why others collapse. Fisher.


  15. Climate Change Elective Track
  16. (6 courses, at least 18 credits)

    • Required:
      • GEOL 141 - Global Climate Change
        FDRSC
        Credits3
        FacultyGreer

        A study of Earth's complex climate system and the impact of human activities on future climates. Through readings, discussions, data analyses and modeling exercises, the past and future changes in temperature, ocean circulation, rainfall, storminess, biogeochemistry, glacial ice extent and sea level are explored.


    • Science:

      three courses chosen from the following, including one laboratory course (indicated by *):

      • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies

        *

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 330 - Experimental Botany: Global Climate Change

        *

        Credits4
        FacultyHamilton

        Lectures focus on the major impacts of global climate change (elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperatures) on plant function (photosynthesis and respiration) and plant communities. Additional topics include global carbon budgets, plant carbon sequestration, and agricultural impacts. Participants review the pertinent primary literature and conduct a term-long laboratory research project. Laboratory course.


      • GEOL 150 - Water Resources
        FDRSC
        Credits3
        FacultyHinkle

        An examination of the quality and quantity of water resources as a limiting factor for life on earth. Issues include resource depletion, pollution, historical use and over-use, remediation, habitat maintenance, and water supply mechanisms. Resource constraints are analyzed from a scientific perspective in order to understand water resource problems and envision solutions.


      • GEOL 155 - Oceanography
        FDRSC
        Credits3
        FacultyGreer

        Introduction to physical oceanography and marine geology; tides, waves, currents, and the interaction of oceans and atmosphere; submarine landscapes; and sedimentary, volcanic, and tectonic activity in the ocean basins.


      • GEOL 205 - History and Evolution of the Earth
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100 or GEOL 101
        FacultyGreer

        An introductory examination of the origin and physical evolution of the Earth as inferred from the rock record. Areas of particular emphasis include: (1) the origin of the solar system and differentiation of the planets; (2) the evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere and hydrosphere; (3) explanations for the development of life; (4) organic evolution and interpretations of "mass extinctions;" (5) the changing configuration of continental blocks and ocean basins by continental drift, seafloor spreading, and plate tectonics; and (6) the growth of continental blocks and their mountain systems.


      • GEOL 260 - GIS and Remote Sensing

        *

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100 or GEOL 101. For GEOL or ENV majors only, or by instructor consent
        FacultyHarbor

        A laboratory course introducing the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing in geological/environmental analyses and decision making. Students use state-of-the-art software with a wide variety of spatial geologic, environmental, economic and topographic data derived from satellites; remote databases and published maps to evaluate geologic conditions; local landscape processes; environmental conditions; and hypothetical land-use cases.


    • Human Dimensions:

      two courses chosen from:

      • ACCT 303 - Sustainability Accounting
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteACCT 201. Prerequisite or corequisite: ACCT 202
        FacultyM. Hess

        This course examines best practices and key debates in sustainability accounting and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting. Sustainable business practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of the future. Increasingly, accountants are playing an important role in measuring, reporting, and auditing corporate impacts on society and the environment so that corporations can be held accountable and more sustainable business practices can be implemented.


      • BUS 355 - Cases in Corporate Finance
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteBUS 221 and at least junior standing. Preference to BSADM majors during first round of registration
        FacultyKester

        Through use of the case method of learning, this course focuses on applied corporate finance strategy, including financial forecasting, financing sales growth, short-term versus long-term financing, commercial bank borrowing, leasing, and capital structure policy. Classroom participation is emphasized.


      • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 101 and instructor consent.

        FacultyCasey, Kahn

        The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


      • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101 or ENV 110, and instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.


      • ECON 356 - Economics of the Environment in Developing Countries
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 203 and either ECON 255 or 280, or obtain instructor consent. Preference to ECON or ENV majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
        FacultyKahn, Casey

        This course focuses on the unique characteristics of the relationship between the environment and the economy in developing nations. Differences in economic structure, political structure, culture, social organization and ecosystem dynamics are emphasized as alternative policies for environmental and resource management are analyzed.


      • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.


      • POL 105 - Introduction to Global Politics
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        A survey of the comparative study of national and international politics and the interaction between the two. Topics may include power relations among and within states, changes in the conduct of international affairs and conflict resolution, contrasting ideas about democracy, economic development, justice, globalization, terrorism, causes and alternatives to war, social movements and the role of the nation-state.


      • POL 233 - Environmental Policy and Law
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101, or POL 100
        FacultyHarris

        A study of major environmental laws and the history of their enactment and implementation. Discusses different theoretical approaches from law, ethics, politics, and economics. Reviews significant case law and the legal context. Emphasis is on domestic policy with some attention to international law and treaties.


  17. Environmental Economics Elective Track
  18. (7 courses, at least 21 credits)

    • Required:
      • ECON 100 - Introduction to Economics
        FDRSS1
        Credits3
        FacultyStaff

        Open only to students who have not taken ECON 101 and/or ECON 102. No retakes allowed. Economics is the study of how a society (individuals, firms, and governments) allocates scarce resources. The course includes a survey of the fundamental principles used to approach microeconomic questions of consumer behavior, firm behavior, market outcomes, market structure, and microeconomic policy, and macroeconomic questions of performance of the aggregate economy, including unemployment, inflation, growth, and monetary and fiscal policies.


      • ECON 203 - Econometrics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 202 or INTR 202 or consent of instructor or department head.

        FacultyAnderson, Blunch

        Explorations of regression models that relate a response variable to one or more predictor variables. The course begins with a review of the simple bivariate model used in INTR 202, and moves on to multivariate models. Underlying model assumptions and consequences are discussed. Advanced topics include non-linear regression and forecasting. Examples in each class are drawn from a number of disciplines. The course emphasizes the use of data and student-directed research.


      • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 101 and instructor consent.

        FacultyCasey, Kahn

        The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


    • Ethics:

      one course chosen from:

      • BUS 345 - Business Ethics
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteINTR 201 or both MS Word Specialist and MS Word Expert certification; and at least junior standing. Preference to BSADM, ACCT, or JMBC majors during first round of registration. See go.wlu.edu/MOS-testing and contact the department head for Microsoft testing details
        FacultyReiter

        An examination of the moral and ethical issues associated with management policy and executive decisions. The course examines the basic approaches to moral reasoning, macro-moral issues concerning the justice of economic systems, and micro-moral issues, such as the following: conflict of interest, whistle blowing, discrimination in employment, product safety, environment, and advertising.


      • ENV 365 - Advanced Topics in Environmental Ethics

        (PHIL 365)

        FacultyCooper

        This course examines selected topics in environmental ethics. Topics may vary from year to year, and include the proper meanings and goals of environmentalism; the goals and methods of conservation biology; major environmental issues in current political debates; and balancing the ethical concerns of environmental justice and our responsibilities to future generations.


      • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.


    • Three additional courses:

      chosen from:

      • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.


      • ECON 257 - Economics of the Chesapeake Bay: Agriculture, Recreation, Fisheries and Urban Sprawl
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101 or instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        This course examines the causes of, consequences of, and solutions to the environmental problems of the Chesapeake Bay, using economic tools in an interdisciplinary context. The course will spend approximately four days in the Chesapeake Bay area. Students work as a group to develop a plan to recover the Chesapeake Bay to promote its ecological health and the ecological services that it provides for the watershed.


      • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101 or ENV 110, and instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.


      • ECON 280 - Development Economics
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
        FacultyCasey, Blunch

        A survey of the major issues of development economics. Economic structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited economic growth. Economic goals and policy alternatives. Role of developed countries in the development of poor countries. Selected case studies.


      • ECON 286 - Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History

        (SOAN 286)

        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101 or instructor consent
        FacultyGuse, Markowitz

        This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.


      • ECON 302 - Game Theory
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteMATH 101 or equivalent and ECON 210
        FacultyGuse

        This course abandons the assumptions of perfect competition. Buyers and sellers may be few; information may be privately held; property rights may poorly enforced; externalities abound and uncertainty is the rule. Game theory is a general framework for analyzing the messy world of strategic interactions. Standard solution concepts such as Nash Equilibrium, subgame perfection, and Bayesian equilibrium are introduced in the context of a broad array of microeconomic topics. These include auctions, bargaining, oligopoly, labor market signaling, public finance and insurance. Class time combines lectures, problem-solving workshops, and classroom experiments.


      • ECON 356 - Economics of the Environment in Developing Countries
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 203 and either ECON 255 or 280, or obtain instructor consent. Preference to ECON or ENV majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
        FacultyKahn, Casey

        This course focuses on the unique characteristics of the relationship between the environment and the economy in developing nations. Differences in economic structure, political structure, culture, social organization and ecosystem dynamics are emphasized as alternative policies for environmental and resource management are analyzed.


      • and when appropriate, and approved in advance,

      • ECON 295 - Special Topics in Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisites: Normally ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102 but may vary with topic. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years.

        Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and are announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

        Winter 2020, ECON 295A-01: Fishery Economics (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 101. An examination of how to use economics as a foundation for managing fisheries. Topics include bioeconomic models of fisheries, use of economic incentives such as individual transferable quotas, recreational fishing, subsistence fishing in developing countries, and conflicts among users. Writing assignments consist of policy briefs. Kahn.

        Fall 2019, ECON 295A-01: The Economics of Race (3). Prerequisite: ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years. A critical examination of the causes and consequences of racial disparities in valued life-course outcomes in America. More than 50 years have passed since the passage of civil-rights and equal-employment-opportunity legislation in the U.S. Nevertheless, racial gaps persist -- with blacks lagging whites -- on most socioeconomic indicators. The course is divided into four parts: (1) an introduction to the biological and social construction of race; (2) theories to explain racial disparities; (3) an examination of racial disparity in such realms as education, health, wealth, wages, and unemployment; and (4) policies to address racial disparities. In each section of the course, students explore relevant issues through assigned readings, films, and classroom discussion. The course fosters the development and use of critical thinking, effective writing, and oral presentation skills. Student evaluation is based on classroom participation, an examination of concepts discussed, film commentaries, and a term paper. Goldsmith.


      • ECON 395 - Special Topics in Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 203 or varies with topic.

        Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and will be announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

        Winter 2020, ECON 395A-01: Seminar in International Trade (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203.; encourage completion of ECON 210. In this seminar, we read a narrow slice of international economics literature where the conclusions are still in contention. We focus on the hard-to-understand patterns in the data and partial theories still in development, and as such the articles showcase how economists do their work. We first use these areas of debate as opportunities to think critically about topics at economic inquiry's leading edge. In the second half of the term, each student chooses one of the areas on the syllabus, or a related area, for further study, identifying a very specific question, one that is interesting and that has not yet been answered. Over the term, that question is examined through a survey of the literature, theoretical modeling, and empirical evaluation of the theoretical model. Results are presented in class. Anderson.

        Fall 2019, 395A-01: U.S. Economic History (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203. An examination of selected topics in the economic development of the U.S. economy. The goals are to review major themes in U.S. economic history, to study professional research papers to learn how economists develop and interpret historical evidence, and to give students hands-on experience analyzing historical data. Major themes include: migration flows to and within the U.S.; slavery and African-American economic progress since emancipation; transportation and industrialization; the Great Depression; and long-run changes in education, income, and urbanization. Shester.

        Fall 2019, 395A-02: U.S. Economic History (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203. An examination of selected topics in the economic development of the U.S. economy. The goals are to review major themes in U.S. economic history, to study professional research papers to learn how economists develop and interpret historical evidence, and to give students hands-on experience analyzing historical data. Major themes include: migration flows to and within the U.S.; slavery and African-American economic progress since emancipation; transportation and industrialization; the Great Depression; and long-run changes in education, income, and urbanization. Shester.

        Fall 2019, 395B-01: Environmental Valuation (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203 or instructor consent. This course is designed to give students an advanced knowledge of environmental valuation techniques. Both theoretical models and empirical work are discussed. Valuation methodologies covered include travel cost models, hedonic wage and price models, contingent valuation, choice modeling, and benefits transfer. Students have empirical assignments. Kahn.


  19. Environmental Humanities Elective Track
  20. (5 courses, at least 15 credits)

    • Philosophy / Ethics:

      Take either:

      • ENV 365 - Advanced Topics in Environmental Ethics

        (PHIL 365)

        FacultyCooper

        This course examines selected topics in environmental ethics. Topics may vary from year to year, and include the proper meanings and goals of environmentalism; the goals and methods of conservation biology; major environmental issues in current political debates; and balancing the ethical concerns of environmental justice and our responsibilities to future generations.


      • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.


    • Religion / Sociology & Anthrophology:

      one course chosen from:

      • REL 207 - Nature and Place
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyKosky

        Through a consideration of work drawn from diverse disciplines including philosophy, religious studies, literature, art, and anthropology, this course explores a variety of ideas about and experiences of nature and place.


      • REL 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities

        (SOAN 224)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non- Indians hold regarding the environment.


      • REL 285 - Introduction to American Indian Religions

        (SOAN 285)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        This class introduces students to some of the dominant themes, values, beliefs, and practices found among the religions of North America's Indian peoples. The first part of the course explores the importance of sacred power, landscape, and community in traditional Indian spiritualities and rituals. It then examines some of the changes that have occurred in these traditions as a result of western expansion and dominance from the 18th through early 20th centuries. Lastly, the course considers some of the issues and problems confronting contemporary American Indian religions.


    • Literature and Arts:

      take one course chosen from:

      • ARTS 233 - Eco Art
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyTamir

        This course treads on the uncharted territory that lies between contemporary art practices and environmental activism, thus redefining cultural norms about the objectives and potential instrumental values of contemporary art. Eco artists replace conventional art store supplies with living plants and microbes, mud and feathers, electronic transmissions and digital imagery, temperature and wind. Through artworks and artists working within the vast scope of environmental concerns. students learn about energy, waste, climate change, technology, sustainability, etc., as well as about creative ecological processes and the relationships between materials, tools, and ecosystems.


      • ARTS 234 - Permasculpture
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        FacultyTamir

        This course is designed to appropriate the principles of sustainable agriculture (permaculture) into the field of environmental installation. Through the process of designing an environmental sculptural system, the entire ecology of the environment is taken into account, including the flora and fauna, the community, and any other defining feature of the chosen location. Students propose and realize a project that integrates collaborative partnerships with the community and the natural environment, while experiencing all stages of production of an outdoor sculptural installation: the research, the design, the partnerships, and all aspects of the fabrication process. Laboratory fee.


      • ENGL 207 - Eco-Writing
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR. Every Tuesday expeditions involve moderate to challenging hiking
        FacultyGreen

        An expeditionary course in environmental creative writing. Readings include canonical writers such as Frost, Emerson, Auden, Rumi, and Muir, as well as contemporary writers such as W.S. Merwin, Mary Oliver, Janice Ray, Gary Snyder, Annie Dillard, Thich Nhat Hanh, Wendell Berry, and Robert Hass. We take weekly "expeditions" including creative writing hikes, a landscape painting exhibit, and a Buddhist monastery. "Expeditionary courses" sometimes involve moderate to challenging hiking. We research the science and social science of the ecosystems explored, as well as the language of those ecosystems. The course has two primary aspects: (1) reading and literary analysis of eco-literature (fiction, non-fiction, and poetry) and (2) developing skill and craft in creating eco-writing through the act of writing in these genres and through participation in weekly "writing workshop."

         


      • or when appropriate, and approved in advance,

      • ENGL 293 - Topics in American Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of the FW requirement

        Studies in American literature, supported by attention to historical contexts. Versions of this course may survey several periods or concentrate on a group of works from a short span of time. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: The American West (3). The American West is a land of striking landscapes, beautiful places to visit, such as Yellowstone and Yosemite, and stories that have had a huge impact on the USA and the world, such as Lewis and Clark, the Oregon Trail, Custer's Last Stand, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, and Cowboy and Indian adventures galore. This course studies some of these Western places, stories, art works, and movies. What has made them so appealing? How have they been used? We study works by authors such as John Steinbeck, Frederic Remington, Willa Cather, Wallace Stegner, and Cormac McCarthy, plus movies with actors like John Wayne, Clint Eastwood, and Brad Pitt to see how Western stories have played out and what is happening now in these contested spaces. (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293B-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Beat Generation (3). A study of a revolutionary literary movement, focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in the United States. This course examines the writings of several American authors (Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Anne Waldman, Amiri Baraka, Bob Dylan, Gregory Corso, Gary Snyder) active from the mid-1940s through recent decades, loosely grouped together as the Beat Generation. What cultural, literary, historical, and religious influences from the U.S. and other parts of the world have shaped their work? What challenges did their boldly different writings face, and how did their reception change over time? What are their themes? Their notions of style? What have they contributed to American (and world) life and letters? The goal of this course is to lay a strong foundation from which such questions can be richly addressed and answered. (HL) Ball.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293C-01: Topics in American Literature: How We Read (3). What's the difference between reading for class and reading for fun? How does an English professor read a novel? How does Oprah read a novel? Why do we even read novels, anyway? For that matter, why do we join book clubs, post reviews on Goodreads, and add our photos to #bookstagram? What do all those different ways of reading look like, and how do they work? This class examines, analyzes, and practices different ways of reading, from academic study to pleasure reading to book clubs. Over the course of the term, we hone the skills necessary to literary analysis, focusing on close reading, strong arguments, and precise claims and evidence. In addition, we practice writing about what we read for non-academic audiences like Goodreads, Instagram, and friends and family. Because revision is an essential part of the writing process, you have several opportunities to revise your writing. (HL) Bufkin.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293D-01: Topics in American Literature: Toni Morrison (3). This course takes into account the literary, professional, and scholarly career of Nobel Prize winning author Toni Morrison. As a class, we read several of Morrison's works as well as her non-fiction scholarship to better understand the worlds she created in her fiction and the ideas she developed across her career, asking questions about history, representation, style, and identity. Potential works include: The Bluest Eye, Sula, Beloved, Home, Playing in the Dark, and The Origin of Others. Particular attention is paid to Morrison's writing in relation to the changing literary landscape into which she both wrote and left her indelible mark. (HL) Millan.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293E-01: Topics in American Literature: Asian-American Literature (3). A study of literatures by Asian American authors, with a focus on how Asian Americans—broadly and inclusively defined—have transformed the social, political, and cultural landscapes of the United States. With such topics as immigration and refugee politics, racism and xenophobia, exclusion and internment, civil rights activism, the post-9/11 period, and model minority myth, our selected texts (novels, poetry, short stories) present both a historical and an intimate look into the lives of individuals who articulate what it means to identify as Asian American in the modern and contemporary United States. Potential texts include Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior, John Okada's No-No Boy, Nam Le's The Boat, Mohsin Hamid's The Reluctant Fundamentalist, and R. O. Kwon's The Incendiaries. (HL) Kharputly.

        Spring 2020, ENGL 293-01: Topics in American Literature: Business in American Literature and Film (4). In his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith tells a powerful story of the free market as a way to organize our political and economic lives, a story that has governed much of the world ever since. This course studies that story (also called capitalism), considers alternate stories of human economic organization, such as those of American Indian tribes, and sees how these stories have been acted out in American business and society. We study novels, films, short stories, non-fiction essays, autobiographies, advertisements, websites, some big corporations, and some businesses in the Lexington area. Our goal is not to attack American business but to understand its characteristic strengths and weaknesses so we can make the best choices about how to live and work happily in a free-market society. (HL) Smout.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Beat Generation (3). A study of a particular movement, focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in the United States. This course examines the writings of such authors as Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Anne Waldman, Bob Dylan, Gregory Corso, and Gary Snyder, who wrote starting in the mid-1940s, continued through later decades, and became loosely known as the Beat Generation. What cultural, literary, historical, and religious influences from the U.S. and other parts of the world have shaped their work? What challenges did their boldly different writings face, and how did their reception change over time? What are their themes? Their notions of style? What have they contributed to American (and world) life and letters? The goal of this course is to lay a strong foundation from which such questions can be richly addressed and answered. (HL) Ball.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293B-01: Topics in American Literature: African-American Literature and Visual Culture (3). This course examines African-American literature ranging from 18th-century poetry to mid-20th-century novels. As we read texts published across this 200-year period, we study the ways writers engage visual art to portray black identity. By examining literature by Wheatley, Douglass, Jacobs, Washington, DuBois, Grimké, Larsen, Hurston, and Ellison alongside the high art and popular visual forms of their respective historical periods, we also assess how visual culture impacted the formation of the African-American literary tradition. (HL) L. Hill.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293C-01: Topics in American Literature: The American Short Story (3). A study of the evolution of the short story in America from its roots, both domestic (Poe, Irving, Hawthorne, Melville) and international (Chekhov and Maupassant), tracing the main branches of its development in the 20th and 21st centuries. Among the writers we read: Flannery O'Connor, Joyce Carol Oates, John Cheever, John Updike, Philip Roth, Tobias Woolf, T.C. Boyle, Amy Hempel, Elizabeth Strout, Junot Diaz, Edwidge Danticat, and others. Additionally, we explore more recent permutations of the genre, such as magical realism, new realism, and minimalism. Having gained an appreciation for the history and variety of this distinctly modern genre, we focus our attention on the work of two American masters of the form, contemporaries and erstwhile friends who frequently read and commented on each other's work—Hemingway and Fitzgerald. We see how they were influenced by their predecessors and by each other and how each helped to shape the genre. (HL) Oliver.

         


      • ENGL 393 - Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English from 1700 to 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 393A-01: Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900: Early African-American Print (3). An examination of the early decades of African-American print culture as a way to explore the larger development of print in the early American republic and through the 19th century. We pay particular attention to the collective development of Black print personas and public discourse as well as to the early African-American novel. We also consider the ways in which print—black type on white pages—served as a metaphor for (re)producing racialization. Possible writers and texts include Phillis Wheatley, Olaudah Equiano, Frederick Douglass' Paper, James McCune Smith, the "Afric-American Picture Gallery", William Wells Brown, and The Garies and Their Friends. There are opportunities for archival research, either through Special Collections or digital databases. (HL) Millan.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 393A-01: Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900: The Global 19th Century (3). This course analyzes the various (inter)national, political, historical, cultural, and ultimately literary impacts of the increasingly interconnected world of the 19th century. Because covering a century in any single location is already a tall order, the course introduces students to thematic connections and ways of reading to inform discussion and research. Using what critic Lisa Lowe calls "the intimacies of four continents" as a foundation, students juxtapose the emergence of European liberalism with ongoing settler colonialism in the Americas, forced Indigenous removal, the enslavement of African people, and trade in Asia. Potential authors and topics include: Equiano, Irving, Apess, Douglass, the Haitian Revolution, racial classification/taxonomy, trade/economy, Latin American wars for independence, The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, the Spanish-American War, fashion, Chinese indentured labor, Indigenous resistance, modernization, and immigration. (HL) Millan.

         


      • ENGL 394 - Topics in Literature in English since 1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English since 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 394A-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: American Outdoor Adventure Stories (3). Here in the New World, where Europeans arrived already excited about untouched wilderness waiting to be explored (and willfully blind to the native peoples living here), stories about travel and adventure were popular from the start. This class studies selected stories historically, seeing how the careers of writers like Henry David Thoreau, Mark Twain, and Herman Melville began with travel writings, and how adventure stories since then have developed, contributing to an explosion in extreme sports and outdoor recreation. Other authors may include John Muir, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, Cormac McCarthy, Hampton Sides, Jon Krakauer, and Cheryl Strayed. We also study contemporary movies like Free Solo and corporations like Patagonia. How do these outdoor adventure stories impact our lives and culture now? (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 394B-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: She Had Some Horses: Native American Women's Literatures 1900-2019 (3). A seminar course with special emphasis on research and discussion. Elizabeth Cook Lynn, Crow Creek Sioux, says that "Art and literature and storytelling are at the epicenter of all that an individual or a nation intends to be. ...a nation which does not tell its own stories cannot be said to be a nation at all." How do Native women writers counter the misrepresentations of Native Americans in familiar narratives like Pocahontas, Sacajawea, or the Land O' Lakes Maiden? This course examines novels, short stories, and poetry by contemporary Native American women authors, addressing racial and gender oppression, reservation and urban life, acculturation, political and social emergence as well as the leadership role of Native American women. Writers may include Erdrich, Silko, Hogan, Tapahonso, Long Soldier, Chrystos, Brant, and Harjo. (HL) Miranda.

         

         


    • Two additional courses:

      chosen from:

      • ARTS 233 - Eco Art
        FDRHA
        Credits3
        FacultyTamir

        This course treads on the uncharted territory that lies between contemporary art practices and environmental activism, thus redefining cultural norms about the objectives and potential instrumental values of contemporary art. Eco artists replace conventional art store supplies with living plants and microbes, mud and feathers, electronic transmissions and digital imagery, temperature and wind. Through artworks and artists working within the vast scope of environmental concerns. students learn about energy, waste, climate change, technology, sustainability, etc., as well as about creative ecological processes and the relationships between materials, tools, and ecosystems.


      • ARTS 234 - Permasculpture
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        FacultyTamir

        This course is designed to appropriate the principles of sustainable agriculture (permaculture) into the field of environmental installation. Through the process of designing an environmental sculptural system, the entire ecology of the environment is taken into account, including the flora and fauna, the community, and any other defining feature of the chosen location. Students propose and realize a project that integrates collaborative partnerships with the community and the natural environment, while experiencing all stages of production of an outdoor sculptural installation: the research, the design, the partnerships, and all aspects of the fabrication process. Laboratory fee.


      • ECON 286 - Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History

        (SOAN 286)

        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101 or instructor consent
        FacultyGuse, Markowitz

        This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.


      • ENGL 207 - Eco-Writing
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR. Every Tuesday expeditions involve moderate to challenging hiking
        FacultyGreen

        An expeditionary course in environmental creative writing. Readings include canonical writers such as Frost, Emerson, Auden, Rumi, and Muir, as well as contemporary writers such as W.S. Merwin, Mary Oliver, Janice Ray, Gary Snyder, Annie Dillard, Thich Nhat Hanh, Wendell Berry, and Robert Hass. We take weekly "expeditions" including creative writing hikes, a landscape painting exhibit, and a Buddhist monastery. "Expeditionary courses" sometimes involve moderate to challenging hiking. We research the science and social science of the ecosystems explored, as well as the language of those ecosystems. The course has two primary aspects: (1) reading and literary analysis of eco-literature (fiction, non-fiction, and poetry) and (2) developing skill and craft in creating eco-writing through the act of writing in these genres and through participation in weekly "writing workshop."

         


      • ENV 250 - Ecology of Place
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyCooper, Hurd

        Think globally, study locally. This course explores globally significant environmental issues such as biodiversity conservation, sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and environmental justice, as they are manifested on a local/regional scale. We examine interactions among ethical, ecological, and economic concerns that shape these issues. Students are fully engaged in the development of policy recommendations that could guide relevant decision makers. The course incorporates readings, field trips, films, and discussions with invited experts.


      • HIST 288 - Key Thinkers on the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyRupke

        "Key thinkers on the environment" are central to this course, ranging from ancient greats such as Aristotle to modern writers such as David Suzuki and E.O. Wilson about the ecosystem crises of the Anthropocene. We highlight certain 19th-century icons of environmentalist awareness and nature preservation, such as Alexander von Humboldt in Europe and Humboldtians in America, including Frederic Edwin Church and Henry David Thoreau.


      • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.


      • REL 207 - Nature and Place
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyKosky

        Through a consideration of work drawn from diverse disciplines including philosophy, religious studies, literature, art, and anthropology, this course explores a variety of ideas about and experiences of nature and place.


      • REL 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities

        (SOAN 224)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non- Indians hold regarding the environment.


      • REL 285 - Introduction to American Indian Religions

        (SOAN 285)

        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        This class introduces students to some of the dominant themes, values, beliefs, and practices found among the religions of North America's Indian peoples. The first part of the course explores the importance of sacred power, landscape, and community in traditional Indian spiritualities and rituals. It then examines some of the changes that have occurred in these traditions as a result of western expansion and dominance from the 18th through early 20th centuries. Lastly, the course considers some of the issues and problems confronting contemporary American Indian religions.


      • or when appropriate and approved in advance,

      • ENGL 293 - Topics in American Literature
        FDRHL
        Credits3-4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of the FW requirement

        Studies in American literature, supported by attention to historical contexts. Versions of this course may survey several periods or concentrate on a group of works from a short span of time. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: The American West (3). The American West is a land of striking landscapes, beautiful places to visit, such as Yellowstone and Yosemite, and stories that have had a huge impact on the USA and the world, such as Lewis and Clark, the Oregon Trail, Custer's Last Stand, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, and Cowboy and Indian adventures galore. This course studies some of these Western places, stories, art works, and movies. What has made them so appealing? How have they been used? We study works by authors such as John Steinbeck, Frederic Remington, Willa Cather, Wallace Stegner, and Cormac McCarthy, plus movies with actors like John Wayne, Clint Eastwood, and Brad Pitt to see how Western stories have played out and what is happening now in these contested spaces. (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293B-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Beat Generation (3). A study of a revolutionary literary movement, focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in the United States. This course examines the writings of several American authors (Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Anne Waldman, Amiri Baraka, Bob Dylan, Gregory Corso, Gary Snyder) active from the mid-1940s through recent decades, loosely grouped together as the Beat Generation. What cultural, literary, historical, and religious influences from the U.S. and other parts of the world have shaped their work? What challenges did their boldly different writings face, and how did their reception change over time? What are their themes? Their notions of style? What have they contributed to American (and world) life and letters? The goal of this course is to lay a strong foundation from which such questions can be richly addressed and answered. (HL) Ball.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293C-01: Topics in American Literature: How We Read (3). What's the difference between reading for class and reading for fun? How does an English professor read a novel? How does Oprah read a novel? Why do we even read novels, anyway? For that matter, why do we join book clubs, post reviews on Goodreads, and add our photos to #bookstagram? What do all those different ways of reading look like, and how do they work? This class examines, analyzes, and practices different ways of reading, from academic study to pleasure reading to book clubs. Over the course of the term, we hone the skills necessary to literary analysis, focusing on close reading, strong arguments, and precise claims and evidence. In addition, we practice writing about what we read for non-academic audiences like Goodreads, Instagram, and friends and family. Because revision is an essential part of the writing process, you have several opportunities to revise your writing. (HL) Bufkin.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293D-01: Topics in American Literature: Toni Morrison (3). This course takes into account the literary, professional, and scholarly career of Nobel Prize winning author Toni Morrison. As a class, we read several of Morrison's works as well as her non-fiction scholarship to better understand the worlds she created in her fiction and the ideas she developed across her career, asking questions about history, representation, style, and identity. Potential works include: The Bluest Eye, Sula, Beloved, Home, Playing in the Dark, and The Origin of Others. Particular attention is paid to Morrison's writing in relation to the changing literary landscape into which she both wrote and left her indelible mark. (HL) Millan.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 293E-01: Topics in American Literature: Asian-American Literature (3). A study of literatures by Asian American authors, with a focus on how Asian Americans—broadly and inclusively defined—have transformed the social, political, and cultural landscapes of the United States. With such topics as immigration and refugee politics, racism and xenophobia, exclusion and internment, civil rights activism, the post-9/11 period, and model minority myth, our selected texts (novels, poetry, short stories) present both a historical and an intimate look into the lives of individuals who articulate what it means to identify as Asian American in the modern and contemporary United States. Potential texts include Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior, John Okada's No-No Boy, Nam Le's The Boat, Mohsin Hamid's The Reluctant Fundamentalist, and R. O. Kwon's The Incendiaries. (HL) Kharputly.

        Spring 2020, ENGL 293-01: Topics in American Literature: Business in American Literature and Film (4). In his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith tells a powerful story of the free market as a way to organize our political and economic lives, a story that has governed much of the world ever since. This course studies that story (also called capitalism), considers alternate stories of human economic organization, such as those of American Indian tribes, and sees how these stories have been acted out in American business and society. We study novels, films, short stories, non-fiction essays, autobiographies, advertisements, websites, some big corporations, and some businesses in the Lexington area. Our goal is not to attack American business but to understand its characteristic strengths and weaknesses so we can make the best choices about how to live and work happily in a free-market society. (HL) Smout.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293A-01: Topics in American Literature: Literature of the Beat Generation (3). A study of a particular movement, focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in the United States. This course examines the writings of such authors as Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Anne Waldman, Bob Dylan, Gregory Corso, and Gary Snyder, who wrote starting in the mid-1940s, continued through later decades, and became loosely known as the Beat Generation. What cultural, literary, historical, and religious influences from the U.S. and other parts of the world have shaped their work? What challenges did their boldly different writings face, and how did their reception change over time? What are their themes? Their notions of style? What have they contributed to American (and world) life and letters? The goal of this course is to lay a strong foundation from which such questions can be richly addressed and answered. (HL) Ball.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293B-01: Topics in American Literature: African-American Literature and Visual Culture (3). This course examines African-American literature ranging from 18th-century poetry to mid-20th-century novels. As we read texts published across this 200-year period, we study the ways writers engage visual art to portray black identity. By examining literature by Wheatley, Douglass, Jacobs, Washington, DuBois, Grimké, Larsen, Hurston, and Ellison alongside the high art and popular visual forms of their respective historical periods, we also assess how visual culture impacted the formation of the African-American literary tradition. (HL) L. Hill.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 293C-01: Topics in American Literature: The American Short Story (3). A study of the evolution of the short story in America from its roots, both domestic (Poe, Irving, Hawthorne, Melville) and international (Chekhov and Maupassant), tracing the main branches of its development in the 20th and 21st centuries. Among the writers we read: Flannery O'Connor, Joyce Carol Oates, John Cheever, John Updike, Philip Roth, Tobias Woolf, T.C. Boyle, Amy Hempel, Elizabeth Strout, Junot Diaz, Edwidge Danticat, and others. Additionally, we explore more recent permutations of the genre, such as magical realism, new realism, and minimalism. Having gained an appreciation for the history and variety of this distinctly modern genre, we focus our attention on the work of two American masters of the form, contemporaries and erstwhile friends who frequently read and commented on each other's work—Hemingway and Fitzgerald. We see how they were influenced by their predecessors and by each other and how each helped to shape the genre. (HL) Oliver.

         


      • ENGL 393 - Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English from 1700 to 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 393A-01: Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900: Early African-American Print (3). An examination of the early decades of African-American print culture as a way to explore the larger development of print in the early American republic and through the 19th century. We pay particular attention to the collective development of Black print personas and public discourse as well as to the early African-American novel. We also consider the ways in which print—black type on white pages—served as a metaphor for (re)producing racialization. Possible writers and texts include Phillis Wheatley, Olaudah Equiano, Frederick Douglass' Paper, James McCune Smith, the "Afric-American Picture Gallery", William Wells Brown, and The Garies and Their Friends. There are opportunities for archival research, either through Special Collections or digital databases. (HL) Millan.

        Fall 2019, ENGL 393A-01: Topics in Literature in English from 1700-1900: The Global 19th Century (3). This course analyzes the various (inter)national, political, historical, cultural, and ultimately literary impacts of the increasingly interconnected world of the 19th century. Because covering a century in any single location is already a tall order, the course introduces students to thematic connections and ways of reading to inform discussion and research. Using what critic Lisa Lowe calls "the intimacies of four continents" as a foundation, students juxtapose the emergence of European liberalism with ongoing settler colonialism in the Americas, forced Indigenous removal, the enslavement of African people, and trade in Asia. Potential authors and topics include: Equiano, Irving, Apess, Douglass, the Haitian Revolution, racial classification/taxonomy, trade/economy, Latin American wars for independence, The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, the Spanish-American War, fashion, Chinese indentured labor, Indigenous resistance, modernization, and immigration. (HL) Millan.

         


      • ENGL 394 - Topics in Literature in English since 1900
        Credits3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        PrerequisiteTake one English course between 201 and 295, and one between 222 and 299

        Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English since 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 394A-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: American Outdoor Adventure Stories (3). Here in the New World, where Europeans arrived already excited about untouched wilderness waiting to be explored (and willfully blind to the native peoples living here), stories about travel and adventure were popular from the start. This class studies selected stories historically, seeing how the careers of writers like Henry David Thoreau, Mark Twain, and Herman Melville began with travel writings, and how adventure stories since then have developed, contributing to an explosion in extreme sports and outdoor recreation. Other authors may include John Muir, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, Cormac McCarthy, Hampton Sides, Jon Krakauer, and Cheryl Strayed. We also study contemporary movies like Free Solo and corporations like Patagonia. How do these outdoor adventure stories impact our lives and culture now? (HL) Smout.

        Winter 2020, ENGL 394B-01: Topics in Literature in English since 1900: She Had Some Horses: Native American Women's Literatures 1900-2019 (3). A seminar course with special emphasis on research and discussion. Elizabeth Cook Lynn, Crow Creek Sioux, says that "Art and literature and storytelling are at the epicenter of all that an individual or a nation intends to be. ...a nation which does not tell its own stories cannot be said to be a nation at all." How do Native women writers counter the misrepresentations of Native Americans in familiar narratives like Pocahontas, Sacajawea, or the Land O' Lakes Maiden? This course examines novels, short stories, and poetry by contemporary Native American women authors, addressing racial and gender oppression, reservation and urban life, acculturation, political and social emergence as well as the leadership role of Native American women. Writers may include Erdrich, Silko, Hogan, Tapahonso, Long Soldier, Chrystos, Brant, and Harjo. (HL) Miranda.

         

         


  21. Water Resources Elective Track
  22. (5 courses, at least 17 credits)

    • Human Dimensions:

      take two courses chosen from:

      • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 100 or 101 and instructor consent.

        FacultyCasey, Kahn

        The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


      • ECON 257 - Economics of the Chesapeake Bay: Agriculture, Recreation, Fisheries and Urban Sprawl
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101 or instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        This course examines the causes of, consequences of, and solutions to the environmental problems of the Chesapeake Bay, using economic tools in an interdisciplinary context. The course will spend approximately four days in the Chesapeake Bay area. Students work as a group to develop a plan to recover the Chesapeake Bay to promote its ecological health and the ecological services that it provides for the watershed.


      • ECON 286 - Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History

        (SOAN 286)

        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101 or instructor consent
        FacultyGuse, Markowitz

        This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.


      • ENV 250 - Ecology of Place
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyCooper, Hurd

        Think globally, study locally. This course explores globally significant environmental issues such as biodiversity conservation, sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and environmental justice, as they are manifested on a local/regional scale. We examine interactions among ethical, ecological, and economic concerns that shape these issues. Students are fully engaged in the development of policy recommendations that could guide relevant decision makers. The course incorporates readings, field trips, films, and discussions with invited experts.


      • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.


      • POL 233 - Environmental Policy and Law
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101, or POL 100
        FacultyHarris

        A study of major environmental laws and the history of their enactment and implementation. Discusses different theoretical approaches from law, ethics, politics, and economics. Reviews significant case law and the legal context. Emphasis is on domestic policy with some attention to international law and treaties.


      • SOAN 285 - Introduction to American Indian Religions
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        This class introduces students to some of the dominant themes, values, beliefs, and practices found among the religions of North America's Indian peoples. The first part of the course explores the importance of sacred power, landscape, and community in traditional Indian spiritualities and rituals. It then examines some of the changes that have occurred in these traditions as a result of western expansion and dominance from the 18th through early 20th centuries. Lastly, the course considers some of the issues and problems confronting contemporary American Indian religions.


      • or when appropriate and approved in advance,

      • ENV 365 - Advanced Topics in Environmental Ethics

        (PHIL 365)

        FacultyCooper

        This course examines selected topics in environmental ethics. Topics may vary from year to year, and include the proper meanings and goals of environmentalism; the goals and methods of conservation biology; major environmental issues in current political debates; and balancing the ethical concerns of environmental justice and our responsibilities to future generations.


    • Science:

      take three courses chosen from the following, including two laboratory courses (indicated by *):

      • BIOL 217 - Aquatic Ecology

        *

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113; MATH 101 or higher; or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the ecology of freshwater systems, with laboratory emphasis on streams and rivers in the local area. It includes a review of the physical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems as well as current issues relating to their conservation. Laboratory activities focus around monitoring the impacts of current stream restoration efforts in local watersheds.


      • GEOL 141 - Global Climate Change
        FDRSC
        Credits3
        FacultyGreer

        A study of Earth's complex climate system and the impact of human activities on future climates. Through readings, discussions, data analyses and modeling exercises, the past and future changes in temperature, ocean circulation, rainfall, storminess, biogeochemistry, glacial ice extent and sea level are explored.


      • GEOL 150 - Water Resources
        FDRSC
        Credits3
        FacultyHinkle

        An examination of the quality and quantity of water resources as a limiting factor for life on earth. Issues include resource depletion, pollution, historical use and over-use, remediation, habitat maintenance, and water supply mechanisms. Resource constraints are analyzed from a scientific perspective in order to understand water resource problems and envision solutions.


      • GEOL 231 - Environmental Field Methods

        *

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent and either GEOL 100 or 101
        FacultyHinkle

        An introduction to the study of standard methods, equipment and tools used in environmental field investigations. Special attention is given to methods used by geologists to measure, record, and report field observations associated with groundwater, surface water, soil and air. Focus is given to the validity of data obtained using various investigative strategies as well as data handling and presentation. The course has an intensive field component using the local watershed as a model environmental system.


      • GEOL 240 - Hydrology

        *

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100 or GEOL 101
        FacultyHinkle

        Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams. Laboratory course.


      • GEOL 247 - Geomorphology

        *

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100 or GEOL 101
        FacultyHarbor

        Investigation of landforms from maps, aerial photographs, digital data, and the analysis of the surficial processes by which they are formed. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of landscape form and process, and a required weekend field trip. Laboratory course.


      • GEOL 260 - GIS and Remote Sensing

        * (with water-resources course project)

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100 or GEOL 101. For GEOL or ENV majors only, or by instructor consent
        FacultyHarbor

        A laboratory course introducing the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing in geological/environmental analyses and decision making. Students use state-of-the-art software with a wide variety of spatial geologic, environmental, economic and topographic data derived from satellites; remote databases and published maps to evaluate geologic conditions; local landscape processes; environmental conditions; and hypothetical land-use cases.


      • GEOL 311 - Earth and Environmental Geochemistry

        *

        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL-100 or GEOL-101. GEOL 211 is NOT a prerequisite for this course
        FacultyHinkle

        A laboratory course emphasizing the principles and tools of the chemical composition of Earth materials to interpret petrogenesis. The course focuses on processes occurring below and at the Earth's surface. Topics include: crystal chemistry, magmatic and metamorphic processes, trace element and isotope geochemistry, oxidation and reduction, and water-rock interactions. The laboratory includes both a local field and laboratory component and focuses on using analytical techniques to evaluate chemical composition including electron microscopy, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.


      • and when appropriate, and approved in advance,

      • BIOL 195 - Topics in Biology
        Credits3 credits in Fall and Winter, 4 credits in Spring

        Topics vary with instructor and term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2019, BIOL 195A-01: Topic in Biology: Evolutionary Medicine (3). Analyzing human health through the lens of evolutionary biology can lead to a better understanding of disease and improved patient outcomes. Humans and the pathogens that infect us share a long, co-evolutionary history, and the results of treatment often depend critically upon the trajectories of within-host pathogen evolution. Many non-infectious diseases and syndromes may also be side effects of long-term human adaptation to an environment that is very different from our modern world. This course explores several topics in evolutionary medicine including the evolution of the human microbiome, human-pathogen coevolution, the evolution of drug resistance and evolutionary strategies for avoiding resistance, recent human evolution, aging, cancer, and human genomics and personalized medicine. (SC) Sackman.

         


      • ENV 295 - Special Topics in Environmental Studies
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisites: ENV 110 or BIOL 111.

        This courses examines special topics in environmental studies, such as ecotourism, the environment and development, local environmental issues, values and the environment, global fisheries, global climate change, tropical deforestation and similar topics of importance, which could change from year to year. This is a research-intensive course where the student would be expected to write a significant paper, either individually or as part of a group, of sufficient quality to be made useful to the scholarly and policy communities. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Winter 2020, ENV 295A-01: Special Topics in Environmental Studies: Water Policy and Politics (3). Current dynamics of conflict over water resources, and their influence on local and international policy, politics, and economics. We discuss the legality of water rights trade, conflicts of agriculture and conservation, water pollution, and the Super-PAC solution. Students investigate the ecology of susceptibility of freshwater systems to biological invasions. And we study the way the global community tackles the refugee problem stemming from diminishing fresh water in the developing world. Students follow three major international case studies to guide our investigation of water resources: (1) water rights on the Colorado, (2) industry and pollution in the Great Lakes, and (3) desertification and refugees in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bleicher.

        Fall 2019, ENV 295A-01: Special Topics in Environmental Studies:Food, Drink, and the Holocene (3). Prerequisites: ENV 110, BIOL 111, or instructor consent. How can the lessons of the last 12,000 years of human history help us make our food systems more sustainable today? This course investigates the ways people eat and drink in the Holocene (approximately 10,000 BC to now) to understand how human-environment interactions have changed through time. Using approaches drawn from archaeology and history, students examine the foodways of past societies --like the Maya, Vikings, Aztecs, early Virginians, and more -- and learn the complex stories of how and why some food systems work and why others collapse. Fisher.


      • ECON 288 - Supervised Study Abroad
        Credits4
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisites: ECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102, instructor consent, and other prerequisites as specified by the instructor(s).

        For advanced students, the course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Emphasis and location changes from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. Likely destinations are Europe, Latin America, Africa, or Asia. This course may not be repeated.

        Spring 2020, ECON 288-01: The Modern Economy of the United Kingdom: Great Shocks In Great Britain (3). The objective of the course is to give the student insight into the progression of the UK economy over the past 40 years. We examine four major events and the economic links between them. These events are the Thatcher Revolution (the Great Transformation), the Great Moderation, the Great Recession and finally the possible Brexit (some might call this the Great Mistake!). We examine each period through the lens of economic theory and empirical evidence, looking at both national and global influences. Our overall goal is to gain insight into the political-economy of the United Kingdom over the entire period, 1979-2019. While the material in the course is specific to the UK, the approach to the material, and the tools used, are applicable to other economies. Davies.


      • ECON 395 - Special Topics in Economics
        Credits3
        Prerequisite

        Prerequisite: ECON 203 or varies with topic.

        Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and will be announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

        Winter 2020, ECON 395A-01: Seminar in International Trade (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203.; encourage completion of ECON 210. In this seminar, we read a narrow slice of international economics literature where the conclusions are still in contention. We focus on the hard-to-understand patterns in the data and partial theories still in development, and as such the articles showcase how economists do their work. We first use these areas of debate as opportunities to think critically about topics at economic inquiry's leading edge. In the second half of the term, each student chooses one of the areas on the syllabus, or a related area, for further study, identifying a very specific question, one that is interesting and that has not yet been answered. Over the term, that question is examined through a survey of the literature, theoretical modeling, and empirical evaluation of the theoretical model. Results are presented in class. Anderson.

        Fall 2019, 395A-01: U.S. Economic History (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203. An examination of selected topics in the economic development of the U.S. economy. The goals are to review major themes in U.S. economic history, to study professional research papers to learn how economists develop and interpret historical evidence, and to give students hands-on experience analyzing historical data. Major themes include: migration flows to and within the U.S.; slavery and African-American economic progress since emancipation; transportation and industrialization; the Great Depression; and long-run changes in education, income, and urbanization. Shester.

        Fall 2019, 395A-02: U.S. Economic History (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203. An examination of selected topics in the economic development of the U.S. economy. The goals are to review major themes in U.S. economic history, to study professional research papers to learn how economists develop and interpret historical evidence, and to give students hands-on experience analyzing historical data. Major themes include: migration flows to and within the U.S.; slavery and African-American economic progress since emancipation; transportation and industrialization; the Great Depression; and long-run changes in education, income, and urbanization. Shester.

        Fall 2019, 395B-01: Environmental Valuation (3). Prerequisite: ECON 203 or instructor consent. This course is designed to give students an advanced knowledge of environmental valuation techniques. Both theoretical models and empirical work are discussed. Valuation methodologies covered include travel cost models, hedonic wage and price models, contingent valuation, choice modeling, and benefits transfer. Students have empirical assignments. Kahn.


      • GEOL 105 - Earth Lab
        FDRSL
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteAdditional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term

        Preference given to first-years and sophomores. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students. Information about the course is made available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Lab fee required.

        Spring 2020, GEOL 105-01: Earth Lab: Dam It! An Environmental Exploration of Dams (4). An exploration of the impacts of dams from an environmental, hydrologic, geologic, and historical perspective. Dams are used for a variety of purposes--storing water provided by rivers to secure a water supply, mitigating flooding, producing electric power, operating mills. As we look to the future of our energy sector, interest in hydroelectric power is increasing. However, damming rivers can have substantial impacts on rivers, affecting ecosystems and environmental systems up- and down-stream of the dam. The hydrologic and geomorphological changes induced by dams are explored in detail as a basis for learning foundational concepts in geoscience. (SL) Hinkle.

        Spring 2020, GEOL 105-02: Earth Lab: The Geology of National Parks (4). A study of the processes that formed and are continuing to shape this continent through examples from some of our most scenic and special places: the national parks. With examples from throughout the national park system, we examine how different rock types form, the scale of geologic time, and earth-surface processes. Each park tells a story: some stories go back billions of years, but most of these stories are still being written, particularly as we consider the idea that we are "loving our parks to death". Thus, we also think about how the parks are likely to respond to changing climate and other human impacts. The course includes short overnight field trips during the first three weeks and a week-long trip out west during the final week of class. (SL) Lyon.

        Spring 2020, GEOL 105-03: FS: Earth Lab: Geology of Hawai'i (4). First-Year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year class standing only. Instructor consent required. Additional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term. An introductory study of earth science and the geology of the Hawaiian Islands taught for two weeks in Hawai'i. Its purpose is to provide an unparalleled opportunity to observe a wide variety of geologic processes in action. This course entails close interaction with the faculty and intensive study amongst the students during the term. (SL) Knapp.


      • GEOL 373 - Regional Geology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteOpen to geology majors. Instructor consent and two geology courses numbered 200 or above

        The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside fieldwork with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. Information about the course is available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements


  23. Student-Designed Elective Track
  24. Students majoring in environmental studies may propose a self-designed series of "elective" courses that focuses on a particular theme relevant to their individual educational objectives. Students should consult with faculty members in Environmental Studies when developing this proposal and present it to the head of the Environmental Studies Program, along with the major declaration form no later than February 1 of the junior year (though we recommend that students submit proposals in their sophomore year). One of the core or affiliate faculty members in Environmental Studies must be willing to serve as the student's adviser in the major and provide a letter of support for the proposal. Proposals must be approved by the Environmental Studies faculty before the end of the junior year.