Environmental Studies Major Requirements

2017 - 2018 Catalog

Environmental Studies major leading to BA degree

A major in environmental studies leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 41 credits, as follows, including at least two 300-level courses. Students also undertake an experiential-learning activity. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in environmental studies.

  1. Required courses: ENV 110, ENV 111, BIOL 111, BIOL113, INTR 201
  2. Social Science Fundamentals: take one course chosen from: ECON 101, POL 100, POL 105
  3. Geology Fundamentals: take one course chosen from: GEOL 100, 101, 105
  4. Statistics: take either BIOL 201 or INTR 202
  5. Advanced Quantitative Skills: take one course chosen from BIOL 282, 325; ECON 203; GEOL 260
  6. Electives: take six courses from the following with at least one from each category and at least one at the 300 level. Note that a course cannot count in more than one category

A. Systems: take one course chosen from BIOL 217, BIOL 245, BIOL 332, or GEOL 240
B. Interdisciplinary Approaches: take one course chosen from ECON 186 (SOAN 186); ECON 259; ENV 250, 390; or, when approved in advance, BIOL 195 or ENV 295
C. Humanities: take one course chosen from BUS 335; ENGL 207; PHIL 150, 282; REL 207, 224; SOAN 224, 286; or, when approved in advance, ENV 395 or PHIL 395
D. Social Sciences: take one course chosen from ACCT 303, ECON 255, ECON 259, or POL 233
E. Free electives: additional courses not used in the above requirements chosen from the following, or from other courses approved in advance by the head of the major:
BIOL 217, 245, 322, 325, 330, 332, or, when approved in advance, BIOL 195, 398
BUS 335
ECON 186, 255, 259 or, when approved in advance, ECON 288
ENGL 207
ENV 207, 250, 390, 395, 493 or, when approved in advance, ENV 295 OR 395
GEOL 141, 150, 240, 247 or, when approved in advance, GEOL 373
PHIL 150, 282 or, when approved in advance, PHIL 395
POL 233
REL 207, 224, 285
SOAN 186, 224, 285, 286

  1. Capstone: Take either ENV 397 or 493
  2. Experience: A relevant internship, study abroad, research project, or other experiential learning activity approved in advance by the head of the major.
  1. Required courses:
    • ENV 110 - Introduction to Environmental Studies
      FDRSS5
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year or sophomore standing or instructor consent
      FacultyKahn

      An interdisciplinary introduction to environmental studies with an emphasis on how societies organize themselves through their social, political and economic institutions to respond to environmental problems. The course begins with a discussion of the development of environmental thought, focusing on the relationship between humans and the environment. Participants then discuss alternative criteria for environmental decision making, including sustainability, equity, ecological integrity, economic efficiency, and environmental justice. The course concludes with an examination of contemporary environmental issues, including global warming, invasive species, energy and the environment, tropical deforestation, and the relationship between the environment and economic development in developing countries.


    • ENV 111 - Environmental Service Learning
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteENV 110 and instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Practical application of student knowledge of environmental issues based on supervised volunteer work in the greater Rockbridge community. Students will participate in a service-learning environment. Topics will include environmental education, campus sustainability, conservation and sustainable agriculture in the surrounding region. The course culminates with a paper integrating students' knowledge with practical application throughout the term.


    • BIOL 111 - Fundamentals of Biology
      FDRSL: BIOL 113 is a corequisite for students seeking laboratory science credits
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: BIOL 113. Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors and seniors. Interested upper-division students should contact Bill Hamilton, in the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins. Suitable for First-Years interested in pursuing a major in biology, neuroscience or environmental studies or the pre-health curriculum

      An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication applied to topics that vary among sections and terms. Specific subjects, chosen from within the scope of modern biological investigation according to the expertise of individual instructors, are examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This course, and its companion laboratory, are prerequisites for all higher level biology courses.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-01: Fundamentals of Biology: Addiction & Drugs of Abuse (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and biochemistry. This course utilizes addiction as a model for understanding the basic principles of cell biology, anatomy, physiology, neuroscience, pharmacology, and genetics. Students gain an appreciation for the biological basis of addiction, as well as the complexity of the body-drug interactions. Students also learn to search and read primary literature, understand the fundamentals of experimental design, and discuss topics related to addiction and drugs. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Blythe.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-02: Fundamentals of Biology: Yellowstone Ecology (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and biochemistry. From cells to satellite data and bacteria and bears, this course investigates multiple biological levels of organization using the world's first national park as a case study. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Hamilton.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-03: Fundamentals of Biology: Diversity of Life (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. Biologists use the word diversity, or biodiversity, to describe the variety of life forms in nature. This section is concerned with three major questions about biological diversity on earth: (1) how did it come to be? (2) what is its present condition? (3) what is its future? We cover physiological adaptations, genetic sources of diversity, evolutionary and ecological processes, anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, and conservation. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Hurd.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-04: Fundamentals of Biology: Bacterial Genetics (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This section is an introduction to the genes and the mechanisms of gene expression by bacterial cells. It focuses on the current issues of bacterial infections in humans, for example: virulence, antibiotic resistance, or emerging diseases. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Simurda.

       


    • BIOL 113 - Biology Laboratory
      FDRSL: see note in BIOL 111
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: BIOL 111. Prerequisites: Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors and seniors. Interested upper-division students should contact Charles Winder, in the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins
      CorequisiteBIOL 111
      FacultyLanier, Winder

      A laboratory course to accompany BIOL 111. Students are trained in basic techniques of biological research by demonstrations and investigatory exercises, including data analysis and scientific communication.


    • INTR 201 - Information Technology Literacy
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteFirst-year or sophomore standing
      FacultyBallenger, Boylan (administrator)

      Through the use of interactive online tutorials, students gain proficiency in and a working knowledge of five distinct areas of information technology literacy: Windows Operating System, spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel), word processing (Microsoft Word), presentation software (Microsoft PowerPoint), and basic networking (the Washington and Lee network, basic Web browsing, and Microsoft Outlook). Lessons, exercises, practice exams and exams mix online efforts and hands-on activities.


  2. Social Science Fundamentals:
  3. take one course chosen from:

    • ECON 101 - Principles of Microeconomics
      FDRSS1
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteOpen only to members of the Class of 2020 and earlier
      FacultyStaff

      Survey of economic principles and problems with emphasis on analysis of consumer behavior, firm behavior, market outcomes, market structure, and microeconomic policy. The first half of a two-term survey of economics. Should be followed by ECON 102.


    • POL 100 - American National Government
      FDRSS2
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      A study of the constitutional origins and historical development of the national government with special attention to Congress, the presidency, the judiciary, and the role of political parties, interest groups, and the media in the policy process.


    • POL 105 - Introduction to Global Politics
      FDRSS2
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      A survey of the comparative study of national and international politics and the interaction between the two. Topics may include power relations among and within states, changes in the conduct of international affairs and conflict resolution, contrasting ideas about democracy, economic development, justice, globalization, terrorism, causes and alternatives to war, social movements and the role of the nation-state.


  4. Geology Fundamentals:
  5. take one course chosen from:

    • GEOL 100 - General Geology with Field Emphasis
      FDRSL
      Credits4
      FacultyStaff

      Preference given to first-years and sophomores. GEOL 100A: First-Year seminar, open to FY students only. The study of our physical environment and the processes shaping it. The materials and structure of the Earth's crust, the origin of the landforms, the concept of geologic time, and the nature of the Earth's interior are considered, with special emphasis on field study in the region near Lexington. No credit for students who have completed GEOL 101. Laboratory course. Lab fee required.


    • GEOL 101 - General Geology
      FDRSL
      Credits4
      FacultyStaff

      Preference given to first-years and sophomores. The study of our physical environment and the processes shaping it. The materials and structure of the Earth's crust, the origin of the landforms, the concept of geologic time, and the nature of the Earth's interior are considered. No credit for students who have completed GEOL 100. Laboratory course. Lab fee required.


    • GEOL 105 - Earth Lab
      FDRSL
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteAdditional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term

      Preference given to first-years and sophomores. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students. Information about the course is made available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Lab fee required.

      Spring 2017, GEOL 105-01: Earth Lab: Dinosaurs (4). Prerequisite: First-Year or sophomore standing only.  Additional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term. A multidisciplinary investigation into the morphology, classification, and ecology of the dinosaurs and their close relatives; the environmental, climatic, and geographic conditions on earth during the time of the dinosaurs and how geologists make those paleo-environmental interpretations; and the biological principles involved in understanding the origin, evolution, and extinction of the dinosaurs. In addition, students discuss how scientific investigations proceed, how science is conveyed to a larger audience, and why dinosaurs in the media are often portrayed with so many scientific errors. (SL) Leonard-Pingel.

      Spring 2017, GEOL 105-02: Earth Lab: Energy, Resources, and the Environment (4). Prerequisite: First-Year, sophomore, or junior standing only.  Additional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term. Energy from natural resources is used in many aspects of daily life, powering homes, schools, farms, businesses, and vehicles. In this modern industrial society, affordable energy is integral to sustaining our economic, social, and political standings. Most of our energy comes from the use of fossil fuels which come with a significant environmental impact. This course surveys the production and efficiency of a wide range of energy resources (including oil, gas, coal, solar, and wind), and studies the environmental impacts of obtaining energy and natural resources via each of these systems. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each energy resource and how we might improve our current energy system. (SL) Axler.


  6. Statistics:
  7. take either:

    • BIOL 201 - Statistics for Biology and Medicine
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
      FacultyMarsh

      This course examines the principles of statistics and experimental design for biological and medical research. The focus is on the practical and conceptual aspects of statistics, rather than mathematical derivations. Students completing this class will be able to read and understand research papers, to design realistic experiments, and to carry out their own statistical analyses using computer packages.


    • or
    • INTR 202 - Applied Statistics
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteINTR 201

      An examination of the principal applications of statistics in accounting, business, economics, and politics. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis.

       


  8. Advanced Quantitative Skills:
  9. take one course chosen from:

    • BIOL 282 - Dynamics of Biological Systems
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteMATH 101, BIOL 111/113, or instructor consent
      FacultyToporikova

      This course discusses how biological systems, ranging from single cells to entire human populations, change over time. Students learn to describe a biological system quantitatively, create a model of the system's dynamics, and make testable predictions. Topics covered include, but are not limited to, cell metabolism, scaling laws for biological systems, population dynamics, and epidemiological modeling. Students learn how to develop and analyze their own models in the lab component of this course where all necessary mathematical and programming background are developed as needed.  Laboratory course.


    • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteMATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent
      FacultyHumston

      This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.


    • ECON 203 - Econometrics
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteINTR 202 or consent of instructor or department head
      FacultyAnderson, Blunch

      Explorations of regression models that relate a response variable to one or more predictor variables. The course begins with a review of the simple bivariate model used in INTR 202, and moves on to multivariate models. Underlying model assumptions and consequences are discussed. Advanced topics include non-linear regression and forecasting. Examples in each class are drawn from a number of disciplines. The course emphasizes the use of data and student-directed research.


    • GEOL 260 - GIS and Remote Sensing
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105. For GEOL or ENV majors only, or by instructor consent
      FacultyHarbor

      A laboratory course introducing the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing in geological/environmental analyses and decision making. Students use state-of-the-art software with a wide variety of spatial geologic, environmental, economic and topographic data derived from satellites; remote databases and published maps to evaluate geologic conditions; local landscape processes; environmental conditions; and hypothetical land-use cases.


  10. Electives:
  11. take six courses from the following with at least one from each category and at least one at the 300 level. Note that a course cannot count in more than one category.

    • Systems:

      take one course chosen from:

      • BIOL 217 - Aquatic Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113; MATH 101 or higher; or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the ecology of freshwater systems, with laboratory emphasis on streams and rivers in the local area. It includes a review of the physical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems as well as current issues relating to their conservation. Laboratory activities focus around monitoring the impacts of current stream restoration efforts in local watersheds.


      • BIOL 245 - Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyHurd

        An introduction to the study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Topics are arranged hierarchically: a) evolution and elementary population genetics; b) population dynamics and regulation; c) interspecific competition, predation, parasitism and symbiosis; d) community structure, energy and material flux in ecosystems. Laboratory is field oriented and investigative. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 332 - Plant Functional Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteAdditional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term
        FacultyHamilton

        The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Information regarding the specific course topic and field trip schedule is made available in the fall. Through novel research projects in a variety of field settings (e.g., on-campus, Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains, The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem), this field-based laboratory course covers topics which investigate the vital roles that plants play in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Topics focus on the responses of native plants to environmental stresses, such as global climate change (elevated temperature and carbon dioxide and drought), herbivory, and invasive species. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments using a variety of species from intact plant communities. A review of the pertinent literature is used to develop and conduct a term research project. Laboratory course.


      • GEOL 240 - Hydrology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105
        FacultyStaff

        Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams. Laboratory course.


    • Interdisciplinary Approaches:

      take one course chosen from:

      • ECON 186 - Land in Lakota Culture, Economics, and History
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        FacultyGuse, Markowitz

        A review of the history of Lakota land from 1851 to present and its importance to Lakota cultural identity, political sovereignty, and economic development. We examine specific federal policies including the treaties of 1851 and 1868, the extermination of the buffalo herds, the confiscation of the Black Hills, the creation of the reservation system, and the Dawes Act among others. Students spend nine days off-campus to participate in workshops at the Center for American Indian Research and Native Studies and to visit sites in and around the Pine Ridge Reservation, the Rosebud reservation, and the Black Hills.


      • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101 or ENV 110, and instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.


      • ENV 250 - Ecology of Place
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyCooper, Hurd

        Think globally, study locally. This course explores globally significant environmental issues such as biodiversity conservation, sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and environmental justice, as they are manifested on a local/regional scale. We examine interactions among ethical, ecological, and economic concerns that shape these issues. Students are fully engaged in the development of policy recommendations that could guide relevant decision makers. The course incorporates readings, field trips, films, and discussions with invited experts.


      • ENV 390 - Special Topics: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Issues
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENV 110 and 9 credits at the 200 level or above in the environmental studies major
        FacultyStaff

        This course examines causes of, consequences of, and solutions to contemporary environmental problems. Though topics vary from term to term, the course has a specific focus on the integration of environmental science, policy, and thought so students understand better the cause and effect relationships that shape the interaction between human and environmental systems. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • SOAN 186 - Land in Lakota Culture, Economics, and History
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        FacultyGuse, Markowitz

        A review of the history of Lakota land from 1851 to present and its importance to Lakota cultural identity, political sovereignty, and economic development. We examine specific federal policies including the treaties of 1851 and 1868, the extermination of the buffalo herds, the confiscation of the Black Hills, the creation of the reservation system, and the Dawes Act among others. Students spend nine days off-campus to participate in workshops at the Center for American Indian Research and Native Studies and to visit sites in and around the Pine Ridge Reservation, the Rosebud reservation, and the Black Hills.


      •  or, when approved in advance,
      • BIOL 195 - Topics in Biology
        Credits3 credits in Fall and Winter, 4 credits in Spring

        Topics vary with instructor and term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • ENV 295 - Special Topics in Environmental Studies
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENV 110 or BIOL 111

        This courses examines special topics in environmental studies, such as ecotourism, the environment and development, local environmental issues, values and the environment, global fisheries, global climate change, tropical deforestation and similar topics of importance, which could change from year to year. This is a research-intensive course where the student would be expected to write a significant paper, either individually or as part of a group, of sufficient quality to be made useful to the scholarly and policy communities. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • Humanities:

      take one course chosen from:

      • BUS 335 - Ethics of Globalization
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteAt least junior standing.
        FacultyReiter and Smith

        This seminar examines a number of ethical issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization. Though globalization is not new, recent business, technological, and policy developments have made the world more integrated and interdependent than ever before. Increasing economic, cultural, and political interconnections have created a host of new questions about how to conceive of the moral rights and responsibilities of individuals, multi-national corporations, nation-states, and global institutions within this new global framework. This course identifies and clarifies some of these questions, and considers how they have been addressed from a variety of different disciplinary perspectives. Questions concerning the ethics of globalization are approached through an analysis of a few specific topics, such as immigration, humanitarian intervention, and global poverty and inequality. Because the issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization cross disciplinary boundaries, readings are drawn from a wide variety of fields, including philosophy, business, economics, political science, and anthropology.


      • ENGL 207 - Eco-Writing
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR. Every Tuesday expeditions involve moderate to challenging hiking
        FacultyGreen

        An expeditionary course in environmental creative writing. Readings include canonical writers such as Frost, Emerson, Auden, Rumi, and Muir, as well as contemporary writers such as W.S. Merwin, Mary Oliver, Janice Ray, Gary Snyder, Annie Dillard, Tich Nhat Hanh, Wendell Berry, and Robert Hass. We take weekly "expeditions" including creative writing hikes, a landscape painting exhibit, and a Buddhist monastery. "Expeditionary courses" sometimes involve moderate to challenging hiking. We research the science and social science of the ecosystems explored, as well as the language of those ecosystems. The course has two primary aspects: (1) reading and literary analysis of eco-literature (fiction, non-fiction, and poetry) and (2) developing skill and craft in creating eco-writing through the act of writing in these genres and through participation in weekly "writing workshop."

         


      • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.


      • PHIL 282 - Philosophy of Biology
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        An examination of philosophical issues raised by biology, with an emphasis on current evolutionary theory. Topics include the structure of the theory of evolution by natural selection, an examination of the concepts of fitness and adaptation, the role of teleological explanation in biology, reductionism, the nature of biological species, individuality, levels of selection, and sociobiology.


      • REL 207 - Nature and Place
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyKosky

        Through a consideration of work drawn from diverse disciplines including philosophy, religious studies, literature, art, and anthropology, this course explores a variety of ideas about and experiences of nature and place.


      • REL 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non- Indians hold regarding the environment.


      • SOAN 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community's understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non-Indians hold regarding the environment.


      • SOAN 286 - Land in American Indian Culture, Religion, and History
        Credits4
        FacultyMarkowitz

        This class focuses on the religious, cultural, and historical dimensions of a selected American Indian nation and ties to its lands as they found expression in the beliefs and practices of its pre- and post-reservation communities. The specific themes that the seminar will address are: 1) Lands, Culture, and Cosmology; 2) Lands, Subsistence, and Ceremony; and 3) Land in the Nation's History; and 4) Sacred Landscape and Contestation.  The course may cover the Lakota Sioux, Cherokee, or other Indian nation.


      • or, when approved in advance,
      • ENV 395 - Special Topics in Environmental Ethics
        Credits3

        This course explores areas of topical concern within the field of environmental ethics. The issues explored may vary from year to year. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2017, ENV 395A-01: Environmentalism in the Anthropocene (3). No prerequsites. Students may not also register for PHIL 395A-01. Many people believe we have entered a new geological epoch: The Anthropocene, or Age of Human Domination. Some of the central questions explored in this seminar include: What does it mean to be an environmentalist in the Anthropocene? Are the traditional goals of wilderness preservation and conservation of biodiversity still appropriate? Should conservation biology shift its goals in the direction of conserving valuable ecosystem goods and services? Should our attitudes towards introduced and/or invasive species be transformed?  Should we assist the migration of species that are unable to respond on their own to the habitat shifts that will result from global warming? Has the planet become, in effect, one large human garden to be managed as best we can?  (HU) Cooper


      • PHIL 395 - Advanced Seminar
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteUsually one course in philosophy other than PHIL 170. Varies by topic

        An intensive and critical study of selected issues or major figures in philosophy. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2017, PHIL 395A-01: Environmentalism in the Anthropocene (3).  No prerequisites. Students may not also register for ENV 395A-01. Many people believe we have entered a new geological epoch: The Anthropocene, or Age of Human Domination. Some of the central questions explored in this seminar include: What does it mean to be an environmentalist in the Anthropocene? Are the traditional goals of wilderness preservation and conservation of biodiversity still appropriate? Should conservation biology shift its goals in the direction of conserving valuable ecosystem goods and services? Should our attitudes towards introduced and/or invasive species be transformed?  Should we assist the migration of species that are unable to respond on their own to the habitat shifts that will result from global warming? Has the planet become, in effect, one large human garden to be managed as best we can?  (HU) Cooper


    • Social Sciences:

      take one course chosen from:

      • ACCT 303 - Sustainability Accounting
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteACCT 201. Prerequisite or corequisite: ACCT 202
        FacultyM. Hess

        This course examines best practices and key debates in sustainability accounting and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting. Sustainable business practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of the future. Increasingly, accountants are playing an important role in measuring, reporting, and auditing corporate impacts on society and the environment so that corporations can be held accountable and more sustainable business practices can be implemented.


      • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101. Economics and environmental studies majors/minors will have priority during the initial registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
        FacultyCasey, Kahn

        The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


      • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101 or ENV 110, and instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.


      • POL 233 - Environmental Policy and Law
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101, or POL 100
        FacultyHarris

        A study of major environmental laws and the history of their enactment and implementation. Discusses different theoretical approaches from law, ethics, politics, and economics. Reviews significant case law and the legal context. Emphasis is on domestic policy with some attention to international law and treaties.


    • Free electives:

      additional courses not used in the above requirements chosen from the following, or from other courses approved in advance by the head of the major:

      • BIOL 217 - Aquatic Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113; MATH 101 or higher; or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the ecology of freshwater systems, with laboratory emphasis on streams and rivers in the local area. It includes a review of the physical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems as well as current issues relating to their conservation. Laboratory activities focus around monitoring the impacts of current stream restoration efforts in local watersheds.


      • BIOL 245 - Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
        FacultyHurd

        An introduction to the study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Topics are arranged hierarchically: a) evolution and elementary population genetics; b) population dynamics and regulation; c) interspecific competition, predation, parasitism and symbiosis; d) community structure, energy and material flux in ecosystems. Laboratory is field oriented and investigative. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 330 - Experimental Botany: Global Climate Change
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteBIOL 220 or instructor consent
        FacultyHamilton

        Lectures focus on the major impacts of global climate change (elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperatures) on plant function (photosynthesis and respiration) and plant communities. Additional topics include global carbon budgets, plant carbon sequestration, and agricultural impacts. Participants review the pertinent primary literature and conduct a term-long laboratory research project. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 332 - Plant Functional Ecology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteAdditional course fee required, for which the student is responsible after Friday of the 7th week of winter term
        FacultyHamilton

        The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Information regarding the specific course topic and field trip schedule is made available in the fall. Through novel research projects in a variety of field settings (e.g., on-campus, Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains, The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem), this field-based laboratory course covers topics which investigate the vital roles that plants play in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Topics focus on the responses of native plants to environmental stresses, such as global climate change (elevated temperature and carbon dioxide and drought), herbivory, and invasive species. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments using a variety of species from intact plant communities. A review of the pertinent literature is used to develop and conduct a term research project. Laboratory course.


      • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteMATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent
        FacultyHumston

        This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.


      • BUS 335 - Ethics of Globalization
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteAt least junior standing.
        FacultyReiter and Smith

        This seminar examines a number of ethical issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization. Though globalization is not new, recent business, technological, and policy developments have made the world more integrated and interdependent than ever before. Increasing economic, cultural, and political interconnections have created a host of new questions about how to conceive of the moral rights and responsibilities of individuals, multi-national corporations, nation-states, and global institutions within this new global framework. This course identifies and clarifies some of these questions, and considers how they have been addressed from a variety of different disciplinary perspectives. Questions concerning the ethics of globalization are approached through an analysis of a few specific topics, such as immigration, humanitarian intervention, and global poverty and inequality. Because the issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization cross disciplinary boundaries, readings are drawn from a wide variety of fields, including philosophy, business, economics, political science, and anthropology.


      • ECON 186 - Land in Lakota Culture, Economics, and History (SOAN 186)
        FDRSS4
        Credits4
        FacultyGuse, Markowitz

        A review of the history of Lakota land from 1851 to present and its importance to Lakota cultural identity, political sovereignty, and economic development. We examine specific federal policies including the treaties of 1851 and 1868, the extermination of the buffalo herds, the confiscation of the Black Hills, the creation of the reservation system, and the Dawes Act among others. Students spend nine days off-campus to participate in workshops at the Center for American Indian Research and Native Studies and to visit sites in and around the Pine Ridge Reservation, the Rosebud reservation, and the Black Hills.


      • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100 or 101. Economics and environmental studies majors/minors will have priority during the initial registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
        FacultyCasey, Kahn

        The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.


      • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101 or ENV 110, and instructor consent
        FacultyKahn

        Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.


      • ENGL 207 - Eco-Writing
        FDRHA
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteCompletion of FW FDR. Every Tuesday expeditions involve moderate to challenging hiking
        FacultyGreen

        An expeditionary course in environmental creative writing. Readings include canonical writers such as Frost, Emerson, Auden, Rumi, and Muir, as well as contemporary writers such as W.S. Merwin, Mary Oliver, Janice Ray, Gary Snyder, Annie Dillard, Tich Nhat Hanh, Wendell Berry, and Robert Hass. We take weekly "expeditions" including creative writing hikes, a landscape painting exhibit, and a Buddhist monastery. "Expeditionary courses" sometimes involve moderate to challenging hiking. We research the science and social science of the ecosystems explored, as well as the language of those ecosystems. The course has two primary aspects: (1) reading and literary analysis of eco-literature (fiction, non-fiction, and poetry) and (2) developing skill and craft in creating eco-writing through the act of writing in these genres and through participation in weekly "writing workshop."

         


      • ENV 207 - Nature and Place
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyKosky

        This course explores a variety of ideas about and experiences of nature and place Through a consideration of work drawn from diverse disciplines including philosophy, religious studies, literature, art, and anthropology. Questions to be Considered may include: what is the nature of place in our societies, and is there a place for nature in our cultures? How have human beings made places for themselves to dwell in or out of nature? What might make a place a sacred place? Are there any sacred places? (


      • ENV 250 - Ecology of Place
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteInstructor consent
        FacultyCooper, Hurd

        Think globally, study locally. This course explores globally significant environmental issues such as biodiversity conservation, sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and environmental justice, as they are manifested on a local/regional scale. We examine interactions among ethical, ecological, and economic concerns that shape these issues. Students are fully engaged in the development of policy recommendations that could guide relevant decision makers. The course incorporates readings, field trips, films, and discussions with invited experts.


      • ENV 390 - Special Topics: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Issues
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteENV 110 and 9 credits at the 200 level or above in the environmental studies major
        FacultyStaff

        This course examines causes of, consequences of, and solutions to contemporary environmental problems. Though topics vary from term to term, the course has a specific focus on the integration of environmental science, policy, and thought so students understand better the cause and effect relationships that shape the interaction between human and environmental systems. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


      • ENV 395 - Special Topics in Environmental Ethics
        Credits3

        This course explores areas of topical concern within the field of environmental ethics. The issues explored may vary from year to year. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2017, ENV 395A-01: Environmentalism in the Anthropocene (3). No prerequsites. Students may not also register for PHIL 395A-01. Many people believe we have entered a new geological epoch: The Anthropocene, or Age of Human Domination. Some of the central questions explored in this seminar include: What does it mean to be an environmentalist in the Anthropocene? Are the traditional goals of wilderness preservation and conservation of biodiversity still appropriate? Should conservation biology shift its goals in the direction of conserving valuable ecosystem goods and services? Should our attitudes towards introduced and/or invasive species be transformed?  Should we assist the migration of species that are unable to respond on their own to the habitat shifts that will result from global warming? Has the planet become, in effect, one large human garden to be managed as best we can?  (HU) Cooper


      • ENV 493 - Honors Thesis in Environmental Studies
        Credits3-3
        PrerequisiteSenior standing, honors candidacy, and consent of the environmental studies faculty
        FacultyStaff

        Honors Thesis.


      • GEOL 141 - Global Climate Change
        FDRSC
        Credits3
        FacultyGreer

        A study of Earth's complex climate system and the impact of human activities on future climates. Through readings, discussions, data analyses and modeling exercises, the past and future changes in temperature, ocean circulation, rainfall, storminess, biogeochemistry, glacial ice extent and sea level are explored.


      • GEOL 150 - Water Resources
        FDRSC
        Credits3
        FacultyHarbor

        An examination of the quality and quantity of water resources as a limiting factor for life on earth. Issues include resource depletion, pollution, historical use and over-use, remediation, habitat maintenance, and water supply mechanisms. Resource constraints are analyzed from a scientific perspective in order to understand water resource problems and envision solutions.


      • GEOL 240 - Hydrology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105
        FacultyStaff

        Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams. Laboratory course.


      • GEOL 247 - Geomorphology
        Credits4
        PrerequisiteGEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105
        FacultyHarbor

        Investigation of landforms from maps, aerial photographs, digital data, and the analysis of the surficial processes by which they are formed. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of landscape form and process, and a required weekend field trip. Laboratory course.


      • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.


      • PHIL 282 - Philosophy of Biology
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyCooper

        An examination of philosophical issues raised by biology, with an emphasis on current evolutionary theory. Topics include the structure of the theory of evolution by natural selection, an examination of the concepts of fitness and adaptation, the role of teleological explanation in biology, reductionism, the nature of biological species, individuality, levels of selection, and sociobiology.


      • POL 233 - Environmental Policy and Law
        FDRSS2
        Credits3
        PrerequisiteECON 100, ECON 101, or POL 100
        FacultyHarris

        A study of major environmental laws and the history of their enactment and implementation. Discusses different theoretical approaches from law, ethics, politics, and economics. Reviews significant case law and the legal context. Emphasis is on domestic policy with some attention to international law and treaties.


      • REL 207 - Nature and Place
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyKosky

        Through a consideration of work drawn from diverse disciplines including philosophy, religious studies, literature, art, and anthropology, this course explores a variety of ideas about and experiences of nature and place.


      • REL 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities (SOAN 224)
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non- Indians hold regarding the environment.


      • REL 285 - Introduction to American Indian Religions (SOAN 285)
        FDRHU
        Credits3
        FacultyMarkowitz

        This class introduces students to some of the dominant themes, values, beliefs, and practices found among the religions of North America's Indian peoples. The first part of the course explores the importance of sacred power, landscape, and community in traditional Indian spiritualities and rituals. It then examines some of the changes that have occurred in these traditions as a result of western expansion and dominance from the 18th through early 20th centuries. Lastly, the course considers some of the issues and problems confronting contemporary American Indian religions.


      • or, when approved in advance:
        • BIOL 195 - Topics in Biology
          Credits3 credits in Fall and Winter, 4 credits in Spring

          Topics vary with instructor and term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • BIOL 398 - Selected Topics in Ecology and Evolution
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteBIOL 220, and at least junior standing

          Topics include ecology, behavior, evolution, and natural history of selected taxonomic groups. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Fall 2017, BIOL 398-01: Topic: Ecology and Conservation (3). Prerequisites: BIOL 220 and permission of the instructor.  What is biodiversity, how did it come about, and what is its future?  How do ecological systems work, and how (and why) can we conserve biodiversity in the Anthropocene? The recognition that global biological diversity is threatened with a precipitous decline of a magnitude similar to the past five mass extinctions, by human activities, has stimulated much ecological research.  We explore major ecological concepts and how they relate to biodiversity by reading and analyzing the primary research literature.  Following a lecture portion of the course to introduce major concepts, students will prepare oral presentations of research based in the primary literature, both assigned and of their choice. Hurd.


        • ECON 288 - Supervised Study Abroad
          Credits4
          PrerequisiteECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102, instructor consent, and other prerequisites as specified by the instructor(s)

          For advanced students, the course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Emphasis and location changes from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. Likely destinations are Europe, Latin America, Africa, or Asia. This course may not be repeated.


        • ENV 295 - Special Topics in Environmental Studies
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteENV 110 or BIOL 111

          This courses examines special topics in environmental studies, such as ecotourism, the environment and development, local environmental issues, values and the environment, global fisheries, global climate change, tropical deforestation and similar topics of importance, which could change from year to year. This is a research-intensive course where the student would be expected to write a significant paper, either individually or as part of a group, of sufficient quality to be made useful to the scholarly and policy communities. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


        • OR
        • ENV 395 - Special Topics in Environmental Ethics
          Credits3

          This course explores areas of topical concern within the field of environmental ethics. The issues explored may vary from year to year. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Fall 2017, ENV 395A-01: Environmentalism in the Anthropocene (3). No prerequsites. Students may not also register for PHIL 395A-01. Many people believe we have entered a new geological epoch: The Anthropocene, or Age of Human Domination. Some of the central questions explored in this seminar include: What does it mean to be an environmentalist in the Anthropocene? Are the traditional goals of wilderness preservation and conservation of biodiversity still appropriate? Should conservation biology shift its goals in the direction of conserving valuable ecosystem goods and services? Should our attitudes towards introduced and/or invasive species be transformed?  Should we assist the migration of species that are unable to respond on their own to the habitat shifts that will result from global warming? Has the planet become, in effect, one large human garden to be managed as best we can?  (HU) Cooper


        • GEOL 373 - Regional Geology
          Credits4
          PrerequisiteOpen to geology majors. Instructor consent and two geology courses numbered 200 or above

          The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside fieldwork with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. Information about the course is available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements.

          Spring 2017, GEOL 373-01: Regional Geology: Iceland (4). Prerequisites: Instructor consent and two geology courses numbered 200 or above. Learn and discover the volcanic and glacial geology of Iceland, and explore sustainability practices. Most of the course is taught in the field in Iceland. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Harbor.


        • PHIL 395 - Advanced Seminar
          FDRHU
          Credits3
          PrerequisiteUsually one course in philosophy other than PHIL 170. Varies by topic

          An intensive and critical study of selected issues or major figures in philosophy. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          Fall 2017, PHIL 395A-01: Environmentalism in the Anthropocene (3).  No prerequisites. Students may not also register for ENV 395A-01. Many people believe we have entered a new geological epoch: The Anthropocene, or Age of Human Domination. Some of the central questions explored in this seminar include: What does it mean to be an environmentalist in the Anthropocene? Are the traditional goals of wilderness preservation and conservation of biodiversity still appropriate? Should conservation biology shift its goals in the direction of conserving valuable ecosystem goods and services? Should our attitudes towards introduced and/or invasive species be transformed?  Should we assist the migration of species that are unable to respond on their own to the habitat shifts that will result from global warming? Has the planet become, in effect, one large human garden to be managed as best we can?  (HU) Cooper


  12. Capstone:
  13. Take either:

    • ENV 397 - Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteENV 110 and completion of any two of the three remaining areas for the Program in Environmental Studies, and instructor consent. ENV 396 is strongly encouraged as preparation
      FacultyStaff

      An interdisciplinary capstone course intended for students in the environmental studies program. Students analyze a particular environmental issue and attempt to integrate scientific inquiry, political and economic analysis and ethical implications. The particular issue changes each year.


    • or
    • ENV 493 - Honors Thesis in Environmental Studies
      Credits3-3
      PrerequisiteSenior standing, honors candidacy, and consent of the environmental studies faculty
      FacultyStaff

      Honors Thesis.


  14. Experience:
  15. A relevant internship, study abroad, research project, or other experiential learning activity approved in advance by the head of the major.