Chemistry and Biochemistry Major Requirements

2017 - 2018 Catalog

The Chemistry department has the following degrees:

Biochemistry major leading to BS degree

The major in biochemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science degree requires completion of 54 credits as follows:

  1. BIOL 111 and 113; CHEM 110, 211, 241 or 241S, 242, 243, 250, 260, 341, 342, 343, 344; MATH 101 and 102; PHYS 111, 113,
  2. Two additional courses totaling at least six credits chosen from the following. Only one 400-level course may count toward the major.
    BIOL 201, 211, 211S, 220, 223, 225, 250, 285, 310, 350, 385, and when the topic is appropriate and approved by the chemistry department head, BIOL 296, 395, 396, or 423
    CHEM 345, and when the topic is appropriate and approved by the chemistry department head, CHEM 298, 299, 399, 403, 423, 473, or 493
    NEUR 395 or 423, when the topic is appropriate and approved by the chemistry department head
  3. Completion of the Major Field Test in Chemistry.
  1. Required courses
    • BIOL 111 - Fundamentals of Biology
      FDRSL: BIOL 113 is a corequisite for students seeking laboratory science credits
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: BIOL 113. Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors and seniors. Interested upper-division students should contact Bill Hamilton, in the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins. Suitable for First-Years interested in pursuing a major in biology, neuroscience or environmental studies or the pre-health curriculum

      An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication applied to topics that vary among sections and terms. Specific subjects, chosen from within the scope of modern biological investigation according to the expertise of individual instructors, are examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This course, and its companion laboratory, are prerequisites for all higher level biology courses.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-01: Fundamentals of Biology: Addiction & Drugs of Abuse (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and biochemistry. This course utilizes addiction as a model for understanding the basic principles of cell biology, anatomy, physiology, neuroscience, pharmacology, and genetics. Students gain an appreciation for the biological basis of addiction, as well as the complexity of the body-drug interactions. Students also learn to search and read primary literature, understand the fundamentals of experimental design, and discuss topics related to addiction and drugs. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Blythe.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-02: Fundamentals of Biology: Yellowstone Ecology (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and biochemistry. From cells to satellite data and bacteria and bears, this course investigates multiple biological levels of organization using the world's first national park as a case study. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Hamilton.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-03: Fundamentals of Biology: Diversity of Life (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. Biologists use the word diversity, or biodiversity, to describe the variety of life forms in nature. This section is concerned with three major questions about biological diversity on earth: (1) how did it come to be? (2) what is its present condition? (3) what is its future? We cover physiological adaptations, genetic sources of diversity, evolutionary and ecological processes, anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, and conservation. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Hurd.

      Fall 2017, BIOL 111-04: Fundamentals of Biology: Bacterial Genetics (3). Corequisite: BIOL 113. An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This section is an introduction to the genes and the mechanisms of gene expression by bacterial cells. It focuses on the current issues of bacterial infections in humans, for example: virulence, antibiotic resistance, or emerging diseases. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Simurda.

       


    • BIOL 113 - Biology Laboratory
      FDRSL: see note in BIOL 111
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: BIOL 111. Prerequisites: Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors and seniors. Interested upper-division students should contact Charles Winder, in the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins
      CorequisiteBIOL 111
      FacultyLanier, Winder

      A laboratory course to accompany BIOL 111. Students are trained in basic techniques of biological research by demonstrations and investigatory exercises, including data analysis and scientific communication.


    • CHEM 110 - General Chemistry
      FDRSL
      Credits4
      FacultyDesjardins, LaRiviere, Tuchler, Uffelman, Abry

      This is a foundational course for those pursuing upper-level chemistry and biochemistry. Fundamental vocabulary, concepts, and principles that appear throughout the chemistry and biochemistry curriculum are introduced. Topics include basic chemistry calculations, quantum mechanics in chemistry, molecular structure, chemical thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. In addition, a range of spectroscopic methods including UV-Vis, Atomic Absorption, and XRF are employed in the laboratory. While no previous knowledge of chemistry is required, some background is advantageous. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 211 - Analytical Chemistry
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and sophomore standing
      FacultyTuchler

      Emphasis on inorganic systems exhibiting aqueous solution equilibria. Topics covered include acid/base reactions, redox reactions, complexation, precipitation reactions, and solution equilibrium. Laboratory work emphasizes basic wet-chemical as well as more sophisticated instrumental techniques of chemical quantitative analysis with appropriate statistical methods of data handling. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 241 - Organic Chemistry I
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteGrade of C (2.0) or better in CHEM 110
      FacultyAlty, Higgs

      A survey of the compounds of carbon including their structure, chemical and physical properties, reactivity, reaction mechanisms, identification, and synthesis. Laboratory focuses on the development of skills in preparing, purifying, and identifying organic compounds using spectroscopic methods. Laboratory course with fee.


    • or
    • CHEM 241S - Organic Chemistry I at St. Andrews
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of 3.0 or better in CHEM 110, a 3.000 cumulative grade-point average
      FacultyFrance

      A survey of the compounds of carbon including their structure, chemical and physical properties, reactivity, reaction mechanisms, identification, and synthesis. Laboratory focuses on the development of skills in preparing, purifying, and identifying organic compounds using spectroscopic methods. Taught at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland with final grade assigned by W&L faculty member. Laboratory course.


    • CHEM 242 - Organic Chemistry II
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 241 or 241S
      FacultyAlty, Higgs

      A continuation of CHEM 241.  Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 243 - Spectroscopic Methods
      Credits2
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242
      FacultySmith

      This course covers theory and interpretation of more complex proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including two-dimensional techniques, and qualitative mass spectrometry. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 250 - Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 261 (or previous version CHEM-260)
      FacultyUffelman

      A survey of main group and transition metal chemistry, as well as fundamentals of point group symmetry and of the major metalloproteins, metalloenzymes, and medicinal inorganic compounds. Main group chemistry is discussed from the perspective of the "classic" compounds from the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the boron family, the carbon family, the pnicogens, the chalcogens, the halogens, and the noble gases. Transition metal chemistry will be examined from the standpoint of characteristic coordination geometries, kinetics and mechanism, electron transfer (inner and outer sphere), and catalysis.


    • CHEM 260 - Physical Chemistry of Biological Systems
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and MATH 102
      FacultyDesjardins

      An introduction to the application of physical chemistry to biological systems. Topics Include enzyme kinetics, the thermodynamics of metabolic cycles, the conformational energetics of biomolecules, especially protein folding, and an introduction to quantum mechanics.


    • CHEM 341 - Biochemistry I
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      A study of the structure, function, biosynthesis and breakdown of biomolecules, including amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Enzymes, biological membranes and membrane transport, signal transduction, and regulation of metabolism are studied in greater detail.


    • CHEM 342 - Biochemistry II
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 341 or BIOL 215
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      A continuation of CHEM 341 with an emphasis on the structure, function, and metabolism of nucleic acids. Topics covered in detail include gene expression and regulation, DNA replication and repair, RNA transcription and processing, and protein synthesis and degradation.


    • CHEM 343 - Biochemistry I Laboratory
      Credits1
      Prerequisiteor corequisite: CHEM 341
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      Experiments demonstrate the techniques used to study proteins and lipids. Isolation and characterization of proteins and lipids using gel electrophoresis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, chromatographic techniques including GC-MS, and the proper reporting and analysis of experimental data are included. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 344 - Biochemistry II Laboratory
      Credits1
      Prerequisiteor corequisite: CHEM 342 and instructor consent
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      A laboratory course designed to demonstrate the fundamental techniques used to study nucleic acids. Methods to isolate and characterize DNA and RNA include PCR, gel electrophoresis, hybridization techniques, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Laboratory course with fee.


    • MATH 101 - Calculus I
      FDRFM
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteNote: Students needing this course to fulfill an FDR requirement should add to a waiting list when open; additional sections may be added

      An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem.

      Fall 2017, MATH 101B-01: Calculus I for Beginners: A First Course (3). Prerequisite: Instructor consent. This section meets 4 hours a week and is restricted to and specially tailored for those who are beginning their study of calculus. Students who have already seen calculus, yet wish to retake it, must register for MATH 101, 101E, or 101F instead of 101B. An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. (FM) Staff.
       
      Fall 2017, MATH 101E-01: Calculus I with Biology Applications (3). Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: BIOL 111 or CHEM 110. This section meets 4 hours a week and has a strong emphasis on biological applications, and is intended to benefit students interested in biological majors and health-related careers. It is designed and specially tailored for First-Years who took high school biology and who are taking a lab-science course concurrently. It is intended both for those students who are beginning their study of calculus and for those who have seen some calculus but want to start over at the beginning of the calculus sequence. Mathematical concepts include the study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem of calculus. This section meets four days per week. (FM) Toporikova.
       
      Fall 2017, MATH 101F-01: Calculus and Environmental Data (3). This section meets 3 hours a week. The course covers the same calculus material as Math 101, namely the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. Applications in this section are focused on data collected by the Environmental Protection Agency and include discussions of finding an appropriate model for a data set and using calculus tools to analyze models. (FM) Staff.

       


    • MATH 102 - Calculus II
      FDRFM
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteThe equivalent of MATH 101 with C grade or better. Note: Students wanting to take this course should add to the waiting list when open; additional sections may be added
      FacultyStaff

      A continuation of MATH 101, including techniques and applications of integration, transcendental functions, and infinite series.


    • PHYS 111 - General Physics I
      FDRSL
      Credits3
      Prerequisiteor corequisite: MATH 101 or equivalent. Corequisite: PHYS 113
      FacultyStaff

      An introduction to classical mechanics and thermodynamics. Topics include Newton's laws, wave motion, and the laws of thermodynamics. This course must be taken simultaneously with Physics 113.


    • PHYS 113 - General Physics Laboratory I
      FDRSL
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: PHYS 111. A laboratory course to accompany PHYS 111
      FacultyStaff

      Laboratory exercises in classical mechanics.


  2. Two additional courses totaling at least six credits chosen from the following.
  3. Only one 400-level course may count toward the major.

    • BIOL 201 - Statistics for Biology and Medicine
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
      FacultyMarsh

      This course examines the principles of statistics and experimental design for biological and medical research. The focus is on the practical and conceptual aspects of statistics, rather than mathematical derivations. Students completing this class will be able to read and understand research papers, to design realistic experiments, and to carry out their own statistical analyses using computer packages.


    • BIOL 211 - Cell Biology
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteBio 111 and 113
      FacultyWatson

      This course will focus on understanding the components of a cell, the internal organization of a cell, how they move, how they function, how they respond to cues from their external environment, and the limits of our current knowledge. Lecture topics will include the internal organization of a cell, structure and function of DNA, RNA and proteins, membrane and cytoskeleton structure function, protein sorting, membrane transport, cell cycle and cell-cycle control, cell signaling and communication, and cell death. The lab component reinforces the lecture by emphasizing the experimental approaches to the study of cell biology. Laboratory course.


    • BIOL 211S - Cell Biology at St. Andrews
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of at least 3.0 in BIOL 111 and 113, a 3.000 cumulative GPA, and permission of the Department of Biology
      FacultyStaff

      Lecture and lab work are intermingled in this course that introduces the structure and function of the cell and sub-cellular organelles. as well as prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The diversity and development of different cell types within multicellular organisms is also discussed. Taught at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland with final grade assigned by W&L biology faculty.


    • BIOL 220 - Genetics
      FDRSL: BIOL 221 is a corequisite for students seeking laboratory science credits
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113, and sophomore or junior standing
      FacultyAyoub, Cabe

      A study of the three main branches of modern genetics: 1) Mendelian genetics, the study of the transmission of traits from one generation to the next; 2) molecular genetics, a study of the chemical structure of genes and how they operate at the molecular level; and 3) population genetics, the study of the variation of genes between and within populations. This course is a prerequisite to most 300-level courses in biology.


    • BIOL 223 - Virology
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 211 or 220.
      FacultySimurda

      A study of those obligate intracellular parasites known as viruses, that infect both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including viral structure, mode of infection and replication, regulation of viral life cycle. Discussions include viral diseases in humans.


    • BIOL 225 - Medicinal Plant Biology
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113 or instructor consent
      FacultyHamilton

      From Taxol to Vitamin C plants provide important medicinal products for humans. This course is an introduction to the study of plant form and function from the perspective of the utilization of plants by humans for medicinal purposes. Lectures cover plant cell biology, biochemistry, physiology, genetics, and interactions with the environment. The laboratory includes modern plant biology techniques ranging from molecular to organismal. Laboratory course.


    • BIOL 250 - Vertebrate Endocrinology
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 and 113
      FacultyBlythe

      This course provides an introduction to the scientific study of the endocrine system, including exploration of chemoregulatory mechanisms in vertebrates and examination of biochemical, cellular, and physiological aspects of hormone action. In-class exercises focus on developing written and verbal scientific communication skills, as well as in-depth analysis of primary literature.


    • BIOL 285 - Introduction to Systems Biology
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteBIOL 220.
      FacultyWhitworth

      Over the last decade a host of innovations have dramatically changed the scale on which biologists can perform experiments and interrogate molecular processes. These new quantitative technologies have allowed us to move from single "component" or "process" views of the cell to being able to ask questions about integrated molecular systems. In this course, we review some of the new technologies which have been driving this change, delve into the primary literature in both biology and medicine to explore the ways in which these technologies have shaped investigation, and explore firsthand some of the computational and statistical approaches that are being used to make sense of large-scale datasets.


    • BIOL 310 - Microbiology
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteONE of the following: BIOL 220 plus CHEM 241, or BIOL 215, or CHEM 341
      FacultySimurda

      A broadly based course in the study of microorganisms, specifically: prokaryotic cells, microbial diversity, and the effects of microbes in the world, in society and in the bodies of animals and plants. It concerns the central role of microbiology as a basic biological science that enhances our understanding of the biology of higher organisms. Laboratory course.


    • BIOL 350 - Immunology
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteSenior standing and one course chosen from BIOL 215, BIOL 215S, BIOL 220, or CHEM 341
      FacultySimurda

      A study of the structural and functional aspects of the immune system from the perspective of cellular and developmental biology; the biochemical and structural properties of antibodies and the possible origins of their diversity; and immunopathology.


    • BIOL 385 - Molecular Mechanics of Life
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteBIOL 220
      FacultyWhitworth

      How do we study complex networks of interactions between molecules in cells? How do we discover what roles different molecular machines play in the development and behavior of cells and animals? How can we identify the ways in which medical illness is caused by the misregulation of biological complexes because of a pathogenic infection or genetic disease? Our approach to answering these questions reflects the same interdisciplinary strategy being used at the forefront of current biomedical research. We consider the ways in which traditional approaches in biochemistry, genetics and cell biology can be merged with new systems-level approaches such as genomics and proteomics, to allow us to probe the underlying molecular mechanics of life. In the classroom, we examine different molecular networks, while readings include selections from the primary literature. The laboratory is based on an investigation of a novel research question, designed and addressed by student participants. Laboratory course


    • BIOL 296 - Topics in Integrative Science:
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteBIOL 111 or PHYS 112 or instructor consent

      Topics in integrative science.


    • BIOL 395 - Selected Topics in Structural and Functional Biology
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteBIOL 220, and at least junior standing

      Topics include physiology, neurobiology, developmental biology and immunology. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • BIOL 396 - Selected Topics in Cellular and Molecular Biology
      Credits3-4
      PrerequisiteBIOL 220, and at least junior standing

      Topics include genetics, virology, cell biology and microbiology. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

       


    • BIOL 423 - Directed Individual Research
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteInstructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Each student conducts primary research in partnership with a faculty member, by prior mutual agreement and according to departmental guidelines (available from biology faculty). Consult the department Web page or individual faculty for a description of current research areas. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. No more than six credit hours of work at the 400 level may apply toward the major.


    • CHEM 345 - Advanced Biochemistry
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 341, BIOL 220 and consent of instructor
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      A more advanced treatment of current topics in biochemistry. Specific topics vary by year but may include enzyme/ribozyme kinetics and mechanisms, signaling pathways, biomolecular transport, chromatin structure/ function, RNA processing pathways, and regulation of gene expression.


    • CHEM 298 - Special Topics in Chemistry
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteVary with topic

      Three-credit studies of special topics. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Possible topics include RNA biochemistry, medicinal chemistry, and atmospheric chemistry and the environment.


    • CHEM 299 - Spring-Term Special Topics in Chemistry
      Credits4
      Prerequisitevary with topic and instructor

      Studies of special topics. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Possible topics include medicinal chemistry, materials chemistry, or atmospheric chemistry and the environment.


    • CHEM 399 - Advanced Topics in Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Credits(3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring)
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242 or instructor consent

      Studies of advanced topics. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • CHEM 403 - Directed Individual Study
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteInstructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Advanced work and reading in topics selected by the instructor and meeting the special needs of advanced students, in accordance with departmental guidelines (available from chemistry faculty). May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • CHEM 423 - Directed Individual Research
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteInstructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Literature search, conferences, tri-weekly reports and laboratory work on a project supervised by the instructor and designed by the student and instructor. A final written report on the project is required.


    • CHEM 473 - Senior Thesis
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteSenior standing in chemistry and instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Literature search, conferences, reports and laboratory. Maximum of six credits. Laboratory course.


    • CHEM 493 - Honors Thesis
      Credits3-3
      PrerequisiteHonors candidacy, senior standing in chemistry, and instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Laboratory work resulting in a thesis exhibiting a significant understanding of an important problem. A student interested in Honors in Chemistry or Biochemistry should notify the Chemistry & Biochemistry Department Head by the end of the sophomore year.


    •   
    • When the topic is appropriate and approved by the chemistry department head:
    • NEUR 395 - Special Topics in Neuroscience
      Credits1, 2, or 3

      A seminar designed to provide the advanced student with a broader knowledge of the field of neuroscience. Specific topics will vary and will be determined, in part, by student interest. May be repeated for credit if the topics are different.


    • or
    • NEUR 423 - Directed Individual Research
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteConsent of the neuroscience faculty
      FacultyStaff

      Each student conducts primary research in partnership with a neuroscience faculty member by prior mutual agreement.Consult with individual faculty for a description of current research areas. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. No more than six credits may apply towards the major.


  4. Completion of the Major Field Test in Chemistry.

Chemistry major leading to BA degree

The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 48 credits as follows:

  1. CHEM 110, 211, 241 or 241S, 242, 243, 250, 261, 341; MATH 101, 102; PHYS 111, 112, 113, 114
  2. Six additional credits chosen from biology, chemistry (numbered 200 or above), geology or physics (numbered 200 or above)
  3. Completion of the Major Field Test in Chemistry.
  1. Required courses
    • CHEM 110 - General Chemistry
      FDRSL
      Credits4
      FacultyDesjardins, LaRiviere, Tuchler, Uffelman, Abry

      This is a foundational course for those pursuing upper-level chemistry and biochemistry. Fundamental vocabulary, concepts, and principles that appear throughout the chemistry and biochemistry curriculum are introduced. Topics include basic chemistry calculations, quantum mechanics in chemistry, molecular structure, chemical thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. In addition, a range of spectroscopic methods including UV-Vis, Atomic Absorption, and XRF are employed in the laboratory. While no previous knowledge of chemistry is required, some background is advantageous. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 211 - Analytical Chemistry
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and sophomore standing
      FacultyTuchler

      Emphasis on inorganic systems exhibiting aqueous solution equilibria. Topics covered include acid/base reactions, redox reactions, complexation, precipitation reactions, and solution equilibrium. Laboratory work emphasizes basic wet-chemical as well as more sophisticated instrumental techniques of chemical quantitative analysis with appropriate statistical methods of data handling. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 241 - Organic Chemistry I
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteGrade of C (2.0) or better in CHEM 110
      FacultyAlty, Higgs

      A survey of the compounds of carbon including their structure, chemical and physical properties, reactivity, reaction mechanisms, identification, and synthesis. Laboratory focuses on the development of skills in preparing, purifying, and identifying organic compounds using spectroscopic methods. Laboratory course with fee.


    • or
    • CHEM 241S - Organic Chemistry I at St. Andrews
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of 3.0 or better in CHEM 110, a 3.000 cumulative grade-point average
      FacultyFrance

      A survey of the compounds of carbon including their structure, chemical and physical properties, reactivity, reaction mechanisms, identification, and synthesis. Laboratory focuses on the development of skills in preparing, purifying, and identifying organic compounds using spectroscopic methods. Taught at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland with final grade assigned by W&L faculty member. Laboratory course.


    • CHEM 242 - Organic Chemistry II
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 241 or 241S
      FacultyAlty, Higgs

      A continuation of CHEM 241.  Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 243 - Spectroscopic Methods
      Credits2
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242
      FacultySmith

      This course covers theory and interpretation of more complex proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including two-dimensional techniques, and qualitative mass spectrometry. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 250 - Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 261 (or previous version CHEM-260)
      FacultyUffelman

      A survey of main group and transition metal chemistry, as well as fundamentals of point group symmetry and of the major metalloproteins, metalloenzymes, and medicinal inorganic compounds. Main group chemistry is discussed from the perspective of the "classic" compounds from the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the boron family, the carbon family, the pnicogens, the chalcogens, the halogens, and the noble gases. Transition metal chemistry will be examined from the standpoint of characteristic coordination geometries, kinetics and mechanism, electron transfer (inner and outer sphere), and catalysis.


    • CHEM 261 - Physical Chemistry: Quantum & Computational Chemistry
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and MATH 102 and junior standing
      FacultyTuchler

      An introduction to quantum mechanics as it applies to atomic and molecular systems. The emphasis is placed on spectroscopic methods and the modern picture of chemical bonding and molecular structure. The accompanying lab focuses on computational methods to illustrate course topics. Laboratory course.


    • CHEM 341 - Biochemistry I
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      A study of the structure, function, biosynthesis and breakdown of biomolecules, including amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Enzymes, biological membranes and membrane transport, signal transduction, and regulation of metabolism are studied in greater detail.


    • MATH 101 - Calculus I
      FDRFM
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteNote: Students needing this course to fulfill an FDR requirement should add to a waiting list when open; additional sections may be added

      An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem.

      Fall 2017, MATH 101B-01: Calculus I for Beginners: A First Course (3). Prerequisite: Instructor consent. This section meets 4 hours a week and is restricted to and specially tailored for those who are beginning their study of calculus. Students who have already seen calculus, yet wish to retake it, must register for MATH 101, 101E, or 101F instead of 101B. An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. (FM) Staff.
       
      Fall 2017, MATH 101E-01: Calculus I with Biology Applications (3). Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: BIOL 111 or CHEM 110. This section meets 4 hours a week and has a strong emphasis on biological applications, and is intended to benefit students interested in biological majors and health-related careers. It is designed and specially tailored for First-Years who took high school biology and who are taking a lab-science course concurrently. It is intended both for those students who are beginning their study of calculus and for those who have seen some calculus but want to start over at the beginning of the calculus sequence. Mathematical concepts include the study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem of calculus. This section meets four days per week. (FM) Toporikova.
       
      Fall 2017, MATH 101F-01: Calculus and Environmental Data (3). This section meets 3 hours a week. The course covers the same calculus material as Math 101, namely the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. Applications in this section are focused on data collected by the Environmental Protection Agency and include discussions of finding an appropriate model for a data set and using calculus tools to analyze models. (FM) Staff.

       


    • MATH 102 - Calculus II
      FDRFM
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteThe equivalent of MATH 101 with C grade or better. Note: Students wanting to take this course should add to the waiting list when open; additional sections may be added
      FacultyStaff

      A continuation of MATH 101, including techniques and applications of integration, transcendental functions, and infinite series.


    • PHYS 111 - General Physics I
      FDRSL
      Credits3
      Prerequisiteor corequisite: MATH 101 or equivalent. Corequisite: PHYS 113
      FacultyStaff

      An introduction to classical mechanics and thermodynamics. Topics include Newton's laws, wave motion, and the laws of thermodynamics. This course must be taken simultaneously with Physics 113.


    • PHYS 112 - General Physics II
      FDRSL
      Credits3
      PrerequisitePHYS 111. Corequisite: PHYS 114
      FacultyStaff

      A continuation of PHYS 111. Topics include electricity and magnetism, optics, relativity, and quantum theory. This course must be taken simultaneously with PHYS 114.


    • PHYS 113 - General Physics Laboratory I
      FDRSL
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: PHYS 111. A laboratory course to accompany PHYS 111
      FacultyStaff

      Laboratory exercises in classical mechanics.


    • PHYS 114 - General Physics Laboratory II
      FDRSL
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: PHYS 112. A laboratory course to accompany PHYS 112
      FacultyStaff

      Laboratory exercises in electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.


  2. Six additional credits chosen from biology, chemistry (numbered 200 or above), geology or physics (numbered 200 or above)
  3. Completion of the Major Field Test in Chemistry.

Chemistry major leading to BS degree

The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Science degree requires completion of at least 55 credits in the sciences and mathematics including the following:

  1. CHEM 110, 211, 241 or 241S, 242, 243, 250, 260, 261, 341; MATH 101, 102, 221; PHYS 111, 112, 113, 114
  2. Two courses chosen from CHEM 342, 347, 350, 365, 399, 403, 473, 493; only one 400-level course may count toward the major
  3. Completion of the Major Field Test in Chemistry.

Students planning for graduate work in chemistry should consult a chemistry faculty member by the end of the first year regarding suggested additional math and chemistry courses. Students may earn the American Chemical Society certified degree by completing more laboratory work. Consult the department head for details.

  1. Required courses
    • CHEM 110 - General Chemistry
      FDRSL
      Credits4
      FacultyDesjardins, LaRiviere, Tuchler, Uffelman, Abry

      This is a foundational course for those pursuing upper-level chemistry and biochemistry. Fundamental vocabulary, concepts, and principles that appear throughout the chemistry and biochemistry curriculum are introduced. Topics include basic chemistry calculations, quantum mechanics in chemistry, molecular structure, chemical thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. In addition, a range of spectroscopic methods including UV-Vis, Atomic Absorption, and XRF are employed in the laboratory. While no previous knowledge of chemistry is required, some background is advantageous. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 211 - Analytical Chemistry
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and sophomore standing
      FacultyTuchler

      Emphasis on inorganic systems exhibiting aqueous solution equilibria. Topics covered include acid/base reactions, redox reactions, complexation, precipitation reactions, and solution equilibrium. Laboratory work emphasizes basic wet-chemical as well as more sophisticated instrumental techniques of chemical quantitative analysis with appropriate statistical methods of data handling. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 241 - Organic Chemistry I
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteGrade of C (2.0) or better in CHEM 110
      FacultyAlty, Higgs

      A survey of the compounds of carbon including their structure, chemical and physical properties, reactivity, reaction mechanisms, identification, and synthesis. Laboratory focuses on the development of skills in preparing, purifying, and identifying organic compounds using spectroscopic methods. Laboratory course with fee.


    • or
    • CHEM 241S - Organic Chemistry I at St. Andrews
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteAn average grade of 3.0 or better in CHEM 110, a 3.000 cumulative grade-point average
      FacultyFrance

      A survey of the compounds of carbon including their structure, chemical and physical properties, reactivity, reaction mechanisms, identification, and synthesis. Laboratory focuses on the development of skills in preparing, purifying, and identifying organic compounds using spectroscopic methods. Taught at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland with final grade assigned by W&L faculty member. Laboratory course.


    • CHEM 242 - Organic Chemistry II
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 241 or 241S
      FacultyAlty, Higgs

      A continuation of CHEM 241.  Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 243 - Spectroscopic Methods
      Credits2
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242
      FacultySmith

      This course covers theory and interpretation of more complex proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including two-dimensional techniques, and qualitative mass spectrometry. Laboratory course with fee.


    • CHEM 250 - Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 261 (or previous version CHEM-260)
      FacultyUffelman

      A survey of main group and transition metal chemistry, as well as fundamentals of point group symmetry and of the major metalloproteins, metalloenzymes, and medicinal inorganic compounds. Main group chemistry is discussed from the perspective of the "classic" compounds from the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the boron family, the carbon family, the pnicogens, the chalcogens, the halogens, and the noble gases. Transition metal chemistry will be examined from the standpoint of characteristic coordination geometries, kinetics and mechanism, electron transfer (inner and outer sphere), and catalysis.


    • CHEM 260 - Physical Chemistry of Biological Systems
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and MATH 102
      FacultyDesjardins

      An introduction to the application of physical chemistry to biological systems. Topics Include enzyme kinetics, the thermodynamics of metabolic cycles, the conformational energetics of biomolecules, especially protein folding, and an introduction to quantum mechanics.


    • CHEM 261 - Physical Chemistry: Quantum & Computational Chemistry
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 110 and MATH 102 and junior standing
      FacultyTuchler

      An introduction to quantum mechanics as it applies to atomic and molecular systems. The emphasis is placed on spectroscopic methods and the modern picture of chemical bonding and molecular structure. The accompanying lab focuses on computational methods to illustrate course topics. Laboratory course.


    • CHEM 341 - Biochemistry I
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      A study of the structure, function, biosynthesis and breakdown of biomolecules, including amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Enzymes, biological membranes and membrane transport, signal transduction, and regulation of metabolism are studied in greater detail.


    • MATH 101 - Calculus I
      FDRFM
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteNote: Students needing this course to fulfill an FDR requirement should add to a waiting list when open; additional sections may be added

      An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem.

      Fall 2017, MATH 101B-01: Calculus I for Beginners: A First Course (3). Prerequisite: Instructor consent. This section meets 4 hours a week and is restricted to and specially tailored for those who are beginning their study of calculus. Students who have already seen calculus, yet wish to retake it, must register for MATH 101, 101E, or 101F instead of 101B. An introduction to the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. (FM) Staff.
       
      Fall 2017, MATH 101E-01: Calculus I with Biology Applications (3). Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Corequisite: BIOL 111 or CHEM 110. This section meets 4 hours a week and has a strong emphasis on biological applications, and is intended to benefit students interested in biological majors and health-related careers. It is designed and specially tailored for First-Years who took high school biology and who are taking a lab-science course concurrently. It is intended both for those students who are beginning their study of calculus and for those who have seen some calculus but want to start over at the beginning of the calculus sequence. Mathematical concepts include the study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem of calculus. This section meets four days per week. (FM) Toporikova.
       
      Fall 2017, MATH 101F-01: Calculus and Environmental Data (3). This section meets 3 hours a week. The course covers the same calculus material as Math 101, namely the calculus of functions of one variable, including a study of limits, derivatives, extrema, integrals, and the fundamental theorem. Applications in this section are focused on data collected by the Environmental Protection Agency and include discussions of finding an appropriate model for a data set and using calculus tools to analyze models. (FM) Staff.

       


    • MATH 102 - Calculus II
      FDRFM
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteThe equivalent of MATH 101 with C grade or better. Note: Students wanting to take this course should add to the waiting list when open; additional sections may be added
      FacultyStaff

      A continuation of MATH 101, including techniques and applications of integration, transcendental functions, and infinite series.


    • MATH 221 - Multivariable Calculus
      FDRSC
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteThe equivalent of MATH 102 with C grade or better. Note: Students needing this course to fulfill an FDR requirement should add to a waiting list when open; additional sections may be added

      Motion in three dimensions, parametric curves, differential calculus of multivariable functions, multiple integrals, line integrals, and Green's Theorem.


    • PHYS 111 - General Physics I
      FDRSL
      Credits3
      Prerequisiteor corequisite: MATH 101 or equivalent. Corequisite: PHYS 113
      FacultyStaff

      An introduction to classical mechanics and thermodynamics. Topics include Newton's laws, wave motion, and the laws of thermodynamics. This course must be taken simultaneously with Physics 113.


    • PHYS 112 - General Physics II
      FDRSL
      Credits3
      PrerequisitePHYS 111. Corequisite: PHYS 114
      FacultyStaff

      A continuation of PHYS 111. Topics include electricity and magnetism, optics, relativity, and quantum theory. This course must be taken simultaneously with PHYS 114.


    • PHYS 113 - General Physics Laboratory I
      FDRSL
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: PHYS 111. A laboratory course to accompany PHYS 111
      FacultyStaff

      Laboratory exercises in classical mechanics.


    • PHYS 114 - General Physics Laboratory II
      FDRSL
      Credits1
      PrerequisiteCorequisite: PHYS 112. A laboratory course to accompany PHYS 112
      FacultyStaff

      Laboratory exercises in electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.


  2. Two courses chosen from;
    • CHEM 342 - Biochemistry II
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 341 or BIOL 215
      FacultyFriend, LaRiviere

      A continuation of CHEM 341 with an emphasis on the structure, function, and metabolism of nucleic acids. Topics covered in detail include gene expression and regulation, DNA replication and repair, RNA transcription and processing, and protein synthesis and degradation.


    • CHEM 347 - Advanced Organic Chemistry
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242 and consent of instructor
      FacultyStaff

      An introduction to the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Topics include control of stereochemistry, synthetic methodology, modern synthetic reactions, protecting groups, natural products synthesis, and combinatorial chemistry.


    • CHEM 350 - Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCHEM 250 and 261
      FacultyUffelman

      An introduction to group theory and its application to inorganic spectroscopy and an introduction to organometallic chemistry, organometallic catalytic processes, and solid state chemistry.


    • CHEM 365 - Advanced Physical Chemistry
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteInstructor consent
      FacultyDesjardins, Tuchler

      A more advanced treatment of the fundamental areas of physical chemistry, such as thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, statistical mechanics, and quantum mechanics. Specific topics vary with student interest.


    • CHEM 399 - Advanced Topics in Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Credits(3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring)
      PrerequisiteCHEM 242 or instructor consent

      Studies of advanced topics. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

       


    • CHEM 403 - Directed Individual Study
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteInstructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Advanced work and reading in topics selected by the instructor and meeting the special needs of advanced students, in accordance with departmental guidelines (available from chemistry faculty). May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • CHEM 473 - Senior Thesis
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteSenior standing in chemistry and instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Literature search, conferences, reports and laboratory. Maximum of six credits. Laboratory course.


    • CHEM 493 - Honors Thesis
      Credits3-3
      PrerequisiteHonors candidacy, senior standing in chemistry, and instructor consent
      FacultyStaff

      Laboratory work resulting in a thesis exhibiting a significant understanding of an important problem. A student interested in Honors in Chemistry or Biochemistry should notify the Chemistry & Biochemistry Department Head by the end of the sophomore year.


    • only one 400-level course may count towards the major
  3. Completion of the Major Field Test in Chemistry