Africana Studies Minor Requirements

2017 - 2018 Catalog

Africana Studies Minor

A minor in Africana studies requires completion of 21 credits. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine (9) credits not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

1. AFCA 130: Introduction to Africana Studies

2. Africa-focused course. One course chosen from among HIST 276, 277, 378; POL 215, 249; and, when appropriate, AFCA 295, ECON 288, 295; FREN 280; HIST 180, 269; POL 288

3. African Diaspora-focused course. One course chosen from among ENGL 366; HIST 236, 259, 260; MUS 221; POL 250; 360; SOAN 228; and, when appropriate, AFCA 295, FREN 344, HIST 180, 269

4. Three additional courses from categories 2 and 3 above and the following courses: ENGL 350; HIST 131, 279, 366; LACS 257; LIT 259; PHIL 242, 243 (POV 243); PSYC 269; and, when appropriate, ECON 280; FREN 397; LIT 295

5. Capstone Experience: AFCA 403 or a relevant individual project, senior thesis, or honors thesis approved in advance by the Africana Studies program committee and supervised by a member of the program faculty, typically taken after completion of other minor requirements.

  1. Required:
    • AFCA 130 - Introduction to Africana Studies
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyStaff

      This seminar, taught collaboratively in four discrete modules, introduces students to the issues, debates, and moments which have shaped and continue to shape the broad and complex field of Africana Studies and the multifaceted experiences and aspirations of peoples of African descent. Among other effects, students who take this class gain a broad appreciation of the historical and philosophical context necessary for understanding the specific identities and contributions to world cultures and civilizations of Africans, African Americans, and Africans in the greater Diaspora; and develop thinking, analytical, writing, and collaborative skills as students complete a major project with one or more of their classmates.


  2. Africa-focused course. Take one course from among the following:
    • HIST 276 - History of South Africa
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyTallie

      This course aims to study the history of the country of South Africa with particular attention to both the uniqueness and the commonalities of its colonial history with other settler societies. Unlike other Anglophone settler colonies, South Africa never reached a demographic majority where white settlers became predominant. Instead, European settlers made fragile alliances against the African and Indian populations in their midst, solidifying a specific form of minority settler rule. This rule was crystallized in the near half-century of apartheid, the legal discrimination of the vast majority of the country for the benefit of a select few. Students emerge from this course as better scholars of a different society and of many of the historic pressures and struggles that are part of the history of the United States.


    • HIST 277 - Speaking and Being Zulu in South Africa
      FDRHU
      Credits4
      FacultyTallie

      "Sanibonani, abangani bami!" ("Greetings, my friends!") Want to learn more about an African language and culture? We spend the first two weeks intensively learning isiZulu, a language spoken by over 10 million people in South Africa. We also learn about the history of the Zulu people in southern Africa, covering topics from colonialism, racial discrimination, gender and sexuality, and music, and we enjoy Zulu music and film. "Masifunde ngamaZulu!" ("Let's learn about the Zulus!")


    • HIST 378 - African Feminisms
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteAt least sophomore standing
      FacultyTallie

      This course critically examines the idea of African feminisms by looking at many different intersections of time, place. and position for African women. This traces multiple ways in which African women have sought to challenge patriarchal roles in both precolonial and (post)colonial contexts. Students leave not with an understanding of a singular or aspirational African feminism but rather with an appreciation of the ways in which African women have and continue to challenge. reframe, and negotiate a variety of social and political positions.


    • POL 215 - International Development
      FDRSS2
      Credits3
      FacultyDickovick

      A study of international development and human capability, with a focus on Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The course analyzes theories to explain development successes and failures, with a focus on the structures, institutions, and actors that shape human societies and social change. Key questions include measuring economic growth and poverty, discussing the roles of states and markets in development, and examining the role of industrialized countries in reducing global poverty. The course explores links between politics and other social sciences and humanities.


    • POL 249 - African Politics
      FDRSS2
      Credits4
      FacultyDickovick

      This course focuses on the politics, society, and economy of Africa during the 20th and 21st centuries. Major topics include: politics and economics of development, poverty, and human capability; authoritarian rule and transitions to democracy; causes and consequences of social change; and relations between Africa and the rest of the world. The course enables students to select country case studies for individual and group research, with a view toward testing hypotheses and formulating theories about comparative politics in Africa.


    • and, when appropriate,
    • AFCA 295 - Seminar in Africana Studies
      Credits3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement

      Students in this course study a group of African-American, African, or Afro-Caribbean works related by theme, culture, topic, genre, historical period, or critical approach. In the Spring Term version, the course involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • ECON 288 - Supervised Study Abroad
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102, instructor consent, and other prerequisites as specified by the instructor(s)

      For advanced students, the course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Emphasis and location changes from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. Likely destinations are Europe, Latin America, Africa, or Asia. This course may not be repeated.


    • ECON 295 - Special Topics in Economics
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteNormally ECON 101 and 102 but may vary with topic. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years

      Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and are announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.


    • FREN 280 - Civilisation et culture francophones
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization in francophone countries. Topics may include: contemporary Africa, pre-colonial Africa, West Indian history and culture, and Canadian contemporary issues. Readings, discussion and papers in French further development of communication skills.

      Fall 2017, FREN 280-01: Civilisation et culture d'Afrique francophone (3). Prerequisites: FREN 261 or equivalent and instructor consent. This course is an introduction to modern African society and culture, with specific focus on Francophone West Africa (Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Mali, among others). We examine the various ways societies deal with issues of modernization and globalization in their political, cultural and socio-economic lives. We also look at the impact of significant historical events (the transatlantic slave trade, colonization, the world wars, and globalization, for example) on the African continent and its inhabitants. Course materials include anthropological, sociological, and historical documents, literary texts, and films. (HU) Kamara.


    • HIST 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

      Topics vary by term and instructor.

      Fall 2017, HIST 180-01: FS: Uncovering W&L's Past HIST (3). First-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-year class standing.  180-01 is a research seminar that will be reading and writing intensive, and focus on the African American past of W&L and other colleges. We will focus solely on archival research and the issues that eastern colleges have dealt with in reclaiming this past. (HU) DeLaney.

      Fall 2017, HIST 180-02:  FS: The War to End All Wars. First-Year Seminar (3). Prerequisite: First-year class standing. Idealists in Britain and the USA justified participation in the First World War by arguing that it would end all wars, but the horrific reality of battle confounded their expectations. In this writing-intensive seminar, we analyze four very different literary accounts of the experience of war: an autobiography of a British officer who became a pacifist in the trenches; an autobiographical novel by a patriotic German who never lost faith in his nation's cause; a collection of poems by British women who served as munitions workers or nurses; and the memoir of the "Arab Revolt" against Ottoman Turkish rule by "Lawrence of Arabia". Students are asked to ponder what lessons can be learned today from the "Great War" of 1914-1918. (HU) Patch.


    • HIST 269 - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History
      FDRHU
      Credits3 in fall or winter; 4 in spring

      A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • POL 288 - Supervised Study Abroad
      FDRSS2
      Credits4
      PrerequisiteInstructor consent and other prerequisites as specified in advance

      This spring-term course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Topics and locations change from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. This course may be repeated if the topics are different. Offered when interest and expressed and department resources permit.


  3. African Diaspora-focused course. Take one course chosen from among:
    • ENGL 366 - African-American Literature
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteENGL 299
      FacultyStaff

      A focused engagement with the African-American literary tradition, from its beginnings in the late 18th century through its powerful assertions in the 21st. The focus of each term's offering may vary; different versions of the course might emphasize a genre, author, or period such as poetry, Ralph Ellison, or the Harlem Renaissance.


    • HIST 236 - Afro-Latin America
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyGildner

      This class examines the intrinsic role that African peoples have played in the historical formation of the geographic and cultural area known as Latin America. We survey the history of African descendant people in the Americas from the forced migration of the Atlantic slave trade to the Haitian Revolution; from the sugar plantation to the city street; from Brazilian Samba in the 1920s to the emergence of salsa music in Spanish Harlem in the 1970s. Topics include slavery, the Haitian Revolution and its legacy, debates on "racial democracy", and the relationship between gender, race, and empire.


    • HIST 259 - The History of the African-American People to 1877
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyDeLaney

      An intensive study of the African-American experience from the colonial period through Reconstruction. Special emphasis is given to the slave experience, free blacks, black abolitionists, development of African-American culture, Emancipation, Black Reconstruction, and racial attitudes.


    • HIST 260 - The History of the African-American People since 1877
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyDeLaney

      An intensive study of the African-American experience from 1877 to the present. Special emphasis is given to the development of black intellectual and cultural traditions, development of urban communities, emergence of the black middle class, black nationalism, the civil rights era, and the persistence of racism in American society.


    • MUS 221 - History of Jazz
      FDRHA
      Credits3
      FacultyVosbein

      A study of the development of jazz from its roots in turn-of-the-century New Orleans to contemporary styles. Strong emphasis is placed on listening and recognition of the performers and composers discussed.


    • POL 250 - Black American Politics
      FDRSS2
      Credits3
      PrerequisitePOL 111 or AFCA 130
      FacultyMorel

      A study of important black figures in American political thought. The course focuses on the intellectual history of black Americans but also considers contemporary social science and public policies dealing with race in America.


    • POL 360 - Seminar: Lincoln's Statesmanship
      FDRSS2
      Credits3
      PrerequisitePOL 100
      FacultyMorel

      This seminar examines the political thought and practice of Abraham Lincoln. Emphasis is on his speeches and writings, supplemented by scholarly commentary on his life and career.


    • SOAN 228 - Race and Ethnic Relations
      FDRSS4
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteAt least junior standing. Instructor consent required
      FacultyNovack

      An analysis of minority groups in America. Theories of ethnicity are examined focusing on the relationship between class and ethnicity, and on the possible social and biological significance of racial differences. Attention is also given to prejudice and discrimination, as well as to consideration of minority strategies to bring about change.


    • and, when appropriate,
    • AFCA 295 - Seminar in Africana Studies
      Credits3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement

      Students in this course study a group of African-American, African, or Afro-Caribbean works related by theme, culture, topic, genre, historical period, or critical approach. In the Spring Term version, the course involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


    • FREN 344 - La Francophonie
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteThree courses at the 200 level
      FacultyStaff

      An analysis of styles, genres, and themes in relation to particular cultural contexts, as represented in literary works written in French by authors from countries other than France. Of particular interest is French language literature from Africa, the Caribbean, and Canada. May be repeated for degree credit if the topic is different.


    • HIST 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteFirst-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing

      Topics vary by term and instructor.

      Fall 2017, HIST 180-01: FS: Uncovering W&L's Past HIST (3). First-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-year class standing.  180-01 is a research seminar that will be reading and writing intensive, and focus on the African American past of W&L and other colleges. We will focus solely on archival research and the issues that eastern colleges have dealt with in reclaiming this past. (HU) DeLaney.

      Fall 2017, HIST 180-02:  FS: The War to End All Wars. First-Year Seminar (3). Prerequisite: First-year class standing. Idealists in Britain and the USA justified participation in the First World War by arguing that it would end all wars, but the horrific reality of battle confounded their expectations. In this writing-intensive seminar, we analyze four very different literary accounts of the experience of war: an autobiography of a British officer who became a pacifist in the trenches; an autobiographical novel by a patriotic German who never lost faith in his nation's cause; a collection of poems by British women who served as munitions workers or nurses; and the memoir of the "Arab Revolt" against Ottoman Turkish rule by "Lawrence of Arabia". Students are asked to ponder what lessons can be learned today from the "Great War" of 1914-1918. (HU) Patch.

       


    • HIST 269 - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History
      FDRHU
      Credits3 in fall or winter; 4 in spring

      A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


  4. Three additional courses from categories 2 and 3 above and the following courses:
    • ENGL 350 - Postcolonial Literature
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteENGL 299
      FacultyKeen

      A study of the finest writers of postcolonial poetry, drama, and fiction in English. The course examines themes and techniques in a historical context, asking what "postcolonial" means to writers of countries formerly colonized by the British. Topics include colonization and decolonization; writing in the colonizer's language; questions of universality; hybridity, exile, and migrancy; the relationship of postcolonial to postmodern; Orientalism; censorship; and the role of post-imperial Britain in the publication, distribution, and consumption of postcolonial literature.


    • HIST 131 - Modern Latin America: Túpak Katari to Tupac Shakur
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyGildner

      A survey of Latin America from the 1781 anticolonial rebellion led by indigenous insurgent Túpak Katari to a globalized present in which Latin American youth listen to Tupac Shakur yet know little of his namesake. Lectures are organized thematically (culture, society, economics, and politics) and chronologically, surveying the historical formation of people and nations in Latin America. Individual countries (especially Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru) provide examples of how local and transnational forces have shaped the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of North and South America and the Caribbean, and the cultural distinctions and ethnic diversity that characterize a region too often misperceived as homogeneous.


    • HIST 279 - Africa in the Western Imagination
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyTallie

      From benefit concerts to AIDS charities to study abroad literature, Africa is everywhere. And yet it is frequently explained only in absence or in suffering. Rather than being a place that is defined by what it is, often Africa is viewed by what it is not, and the term 'Afro-pessimism' has been coined by some to criticize such solely negative depictions of a vast and varied continent. What, then, is 'Africa': a location on a map, a geographical boundary? Who are 'Africans'? What does the idea mean and how is it used? This course draws on literature and popular culture to discuss the very idea of 'Africa' and how the concept has been created, redefined, re-imagined, and (de)constructed in differing times and spaces.


    • HIST 366 - Seminar: Slavery in the Americas
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteJunior or senior standing
      FacultyDeLaney

      An intensive examination of slavery, abolition movements and emancipation in North America, the Caribbean and Latin America. Emphasis is on the use of primary sources and class discussion of assigned readings.


    • LACS 257 - Multiculturalism in Latin America: The Case of Brazil
      FDRHL
      Credits4
      FacultyPinto-Bailey

      This seminar studies Brazil as an example of a multicultural society. Students examine the meaning of multiculturalism and related concepts of identity, heterogeneity, and Eurocentrism, not only in regard to the Brazilian context, but also, comparatively, to that of US culture. The course focuses on the social dynamics that have engaged Brazilians of different backgrounds, marked by differences of gender, ethnicity, and class, and on how multiculturalism and the ensuing conflicts have continuously shaped and reshaped individual subjectivities and national identity. Some of the key issues to be addressed in class are: Brazil's ethnic formation; myths of national identity; class and racial relations; and women in Brazilian society. Readings for the class include novels, short stories, poetry, and testimonial/diary


    • LIT 259 - The French Caribbean Novel
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement
      FacultyStaff

      A stylistic and thematic study of identity acquisition through exile, marginalization, struggle, reintegration and cultural blending or any other sociologically significant phenomenon reflected in the literary works of the most important post-colonial French West Indian authors. Spawned largely by Aimé Césaire's book-length poem, Notebook of a Return to My Native Land , French Caribbean novels have proliferated since the end of World War II. After taking a brief look first at this seminal poem, the course then focuses analytically on novels written by authors such as Haitian Jacques Roumain, Guadeloupeans Simone Schwarz-Bart and Maryse Condé, and Martinicans Joseph Zobel, Raphaël Confiant, and Édouard Glissant. Several films based on, or pertaining to, Césaire's poem and to certain novels are also viewed.


    • PHIL 242 - Social Inequality and Fair Opportunity
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyBell

      An exploration of the different range of opportunities available to various social groups, including racial, ethnic and sexual minorities, women, and the poor. Topics include how to define fair equality of opportunity; the social mechanisms that play a role in expanding and limiting opportunity; legal and group-initiated strategies aimed at effecting fair equality of opportunity and the theoretical foundations of these strategies; as well as an analysis of the concepts of equality, merit and citizenship, and their value to individuals and society.


    • PHIL 243 - Martin Luther King Jr.: Poverty, Justice, and Love
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyPickett

      This course offers students the opportunity to examine the ethics and theology that informed the public arguments about poverty made by one of the 20th century's most important social justice theorists and activists, Martin Luther King Jr., as well as the competing views of his contemporaries, critics, forebears, and heirs. The course asks the following questions, among others: How do justice and love relate to one another and to poverty reduction? What role should religion play in public discussions and policies about poverty and justice? Are the dignity and the beloved community King championed the proper goal of anti-poverty efforts?


    • POV 243 - Martin Luther King Jr.: Poverty, Justice, and Love
      FDRHU
      Credits3
      FacultyPickett

      This course offers students the opportunity to examine the ethics and theology that informed the public arguments about poverty made by one of the 20th century's most important social justice theorists and activists, Martin Luther King Jr., as well as the competing views of his contemporaries, critics, forebears, and heirs. The course asks the following questions, among others: How do justice and love relate to one another and to poverty reduction? What role should religion play in public discussions and policies about poverty and justice? Are the dignity and the beloved community King championed the proper goal of anti-poverty efforts?


    • PSYC 269 - Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
      Credits3
      PrerequisitePSYC 114 and PSYC 250 (as co-req or pre-req) or instructor consent
      FacultyWoodzicka

      This course examines cognitive and affective processes involved in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Causes and social implications of prejudice involving various stigmatized groups (e.g., African-Americans, women, homosexuals, people of low socioeconomic status, overweight individuals) are examined. Participants focus on attitudes and behaviors of both perpetrators and targets of prejudice that likely contribute to and result from social inequality.


    • and, when appropriate,
    • ECON 280 - Development Economics
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteECON 100 or both ECON 101 and 102. Preference to ECON majors during the first round of registration. Other majors are encouraged to add to the waiting list after registration re-opens for all class years
      FacultyCasey, Blunch

      A survey of the major issues of development economics. Economic structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited economic growth. Economic goals and policy alternatives. Role of developed countries in the development of poor countries. Selected case studies.


    • FREN 397 - Séminaire avancé
      FDRHL
      Credits3
      PrerequisiteThree courses at the 200 level

      The in-depth study of a topic in French literature and/or civilization. Recent offerings include: La Littérature francophone du Maghreb; La littérature Beure; La France sous l'occupation; Les femmes et l'écriture au XVIIe siècle; Les écrivains du XXe siècle et la diversité culturelle; L'affaire Dreyfus. Students are encouraged to use this course for the development of a personal project. May be repeated for degree credit when the topics are different.


    • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation
      FDRHL
      Credits3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
      PrerequisiteCompletion of FW requirement

      A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.


  5. Capstone Experience:
  6. AFCA 403 or a relevant individual project, senior thesis, or honors thesis approved in advance by the Africana Studies program committee and supervised by a member of the program faculty, typically taken after completion of other minor requirements.