Spring Term Courses

See complete information about these courses in the course offerings database. For more information about a specific course, including course type, schedule and location, click on its title.

Federal Tax Policy and Planning in Today's World

ACCT 256 - Bovay, John C. (Jack)

This course promotes thoughtful discussion and research of current topics in U.S. tax policy and planning. After an intensive introduction to basic federal tax concepts, each student writes a paper on a current federal tax topic.

Anatomy of a Fraud

ACCT 304 - Hess, Megan F.

This course examines the phenomena of financial statement fraud and discusses some of the key forensic accounting concepts and skills used to address this problem. Drawing on historical cases of financial statement fraud as well as the first-hand experience of the instructor, we search for the answers to questions such as: What causes executives to "cook the books"? What factors contribute to fraud? What can be done to prevent and detect it? How have regulations changed the landscape of corporate misconduct? What role do auditors, lawyers, employees, the media, and other stakeholders play?

The Boardroom: A View Behind the Corporate Curtain

ACCT 373 - Reid, Colin D.

This class is designed to help students understand the framework in which business operates. We discuss corporate governance both from the perspective of the corporation and from the perspectives of the other actors within this framework, such as institutional investors, activist investors, and auditors. The course incorporates working sessions in addition to class that include in-depth financial and corporate governance analyses of the banking industry, including a specific bank traded on NASDAQ. These analyses culminate in the unique opportunity to attend this bank's annual meeting of shareholders as well as a meeting of the board of directors.

The Business of Contemporary Art

ARTH 125 - King, Elliott H. / Schwartz, Adam L.

This course combines finance, tax policy, marketing, economics, and art history to provide a 'nuts-and-bolts' view of how the contemporary art world operates. Appropriate for business students with an interest in contemporary art as well as museum studies and art history majors who wish to gain an understanding of business concepts in the art world, the course serves as preparation for students who may anticipate acquiring art for personal or business investment/use, serving on a museum board, pursuing employment in the art world, or advising high wealth clients on business matters related to art. Each topic begins with an overview of general principles before reviewing applications to the art world. For example, discussion of charitable giving covers the general tax rules of charitable deductions before discussing the specific rules related to art and museums. Additional course fee; see details link at http://go.wlu.edu/CourseOfferings.

Community Muralism: The Art of Public Engagement

ARTH 275 - Lepage, Andrea C. / Olson-Janjic, Kathleen

Our nation is currently witnessing a community mural renaissance. Public murals help to create welcoming and inclusive public spaces, build and solidify community identity, commemorate individuals or events, arouse social consciousness or impact social change, and recognize the voices of traditionally disempowered groups. During the term, we trace the historical development of community murals. Students participate in studio exercises that give them experience with a variety of methods, materials, and techniques necessary to plan, design, and produce a largescale community mural. We produce and document a mural in collaboration with a local community partner.

Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Paintings

ARTH 356 - Uffelman, Erich S.

Spring Term Abroad course. A survey of 17th-century Dutch history, art history, politics, religion, economics, etc., which links the scientific analysis of art to the art and culture of the time. The course begins on campus and then history, etc., will occur for a few days in Lexington and then proceed to Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. Students visit numerous museums, hear guest lectures from faculty at Universiteit Maastricht, and observe at conservation laboratories at some of the major Dutch art museums. Students are graded by their performance on two research projects involving presentations and journals. Though students are not required to learn a foreign language to participate in the program, they are expected to learn key phrases in Dutch as a matter of courtesy to citizens of the host country.

Seminar in Art History

ARTH 394 - Gustafson, Erik D.

Research in selected topics in art history with written and oral reports. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ARTH 394-01: When Jesus was Zeus? From Pagan to Christian Art (4). An investigation of the development of Christian art out of pagan Late Antique culture. Students consider how early Christians adopted Greco-Roman art, tweaking and adapting those older traditions into images of Christian triumph and propaganda. As a colloquium driven by student conversation and participation, discussion is rooted in the historical complexities of Pagan and Christian relationships. We examine current scholarly debates on what has been called the Clash of the Gods: Christ as a magician, as Zeus or Asclepius, and even as feminine. (HA) Gustafson.

Creating Comics

ARTS 215 - Beavers, Leigh A. / Gavaler, Christopher P. (Chris)

A course which is both a creative-writing and a studio-art course. Students study graphic narratives as an art form that combines image-making and storytelling, producing their own multi-page narratives through the "writing" of images. The course includes a theoretical overview of the comics form, using a range of works as practical models.

Paris: History, Image, Myth, Part II

ARTS 223 - Bowden, Christa K.

Students may not take this course and HIST 210. Participants in this course spend four weeks in Paris asking the following questions: how can photography capture Parisian life and Parisian spaces to document a sense of place? How can we use photography to observe the city's changing landscape as well as understand its rich past? Indeed, how has photography--the development of which is closely tied to Paris's history--altered the fabric of the city? Topics include the social and political transformations of the 19th century, the shifting geography of artistic Paris, and contemporary trends such as immigration and gentrification. Numerous museum and gallery visits will also play an important role in our time in Paris. This course is taught in close collaboration with HIST 210, creating an interdisciplinary context for students to explore the relationship of photography to the modern history and contemporary issues of Paris.

Community Muralism: The Art of Public Engagement

ARTS 275 - Lepage, Andrea C. / Olson-Janjic, Kathleen

Our nation is currently witnessing a community mural renaissance. Public murals help to create welcoming and inclusive public spaces, build and solidify community identity, commemorate individuals or events, arouse social consciousness or impact social change, and recognize the voices of traditionally disempowered groups. During the term, we trace the historical development of community murals. Students participate in studio exercises that give them experience with a variety of methods, materials, and techniques necessary to plan, design, and produce a largescale community mural. We produce and document a mural in collaboration with a local community partner.

Environmental Biology: Endangered Plants of the Appalachians

BIOL 101 - Winder, Charles T.

Using case studies in plant endangerment as a focal point for understanding ecological and evolutionary processes and the impact of human activities on biodiversity, students gain fundamental insight into their relationship with the living world and the importance of preserving biological diversity through a combination of targeted readings, intensive discussions, and basic research in the field, Field activities take place in regional hotspots of plant endemism and give students experience in applied conservation research. Field sites and subject species vary from year to year.

Field Ornithology

BIOL 241 - Cabe, Paul R.

This course integrates studies of bird biology with field observation and identification of local bird species. Topics covered include anatomy, taxonomy, reproduction, vocalization, migration, ecology, and evolution. Field trips to a variety of areas throughout Virginia emphasize identification skills and basic field research techniques. No other course may be taken concurrently. Laboratory course.

Neural Imaging

BIOL 280 - Watson, Fiona L.

This course examines how the architecture of specific types of neurons affect the neuron's ability to receive, process, and transmit synaptic information. In particular, the course examines how some of the important molecular growth and differentiation cues (e.g., growth factors) can transmit signals important for axon growth and survival of developing and mature neurons. Topics may include neurogenesis, axonal pathfinding, synaptogenesis, and regeneration. Students will conduct original research in the laboratory and acquire skills with various imaging techniques and analytical tools.

Plant Functional Ecology

BIOL 332 - Hamilton, Eugene W., III (Bill)

The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Information regarding the specific course topic and field trip schedule is made available in the fall. Through novel research projects in a variety of field settings (e.g., on-campus, Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains, The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem), this field-based laboratory course covers topics which investigate the vital roles that plants play in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Topics focus on the responses of native plants to environmental stresses, such as global climate change (elevated temperature and carbon dioxide and drought), herbivory, and invasive species. Field and laboratory exercises focus on testing hypotheses through experiments using a variety of species from intact plant communities. A review of the pertinent literature is used to develop and conduct a term research project. Laboratory course.

Experimental Neurophysiology

BIOL 360 - Blythe, Sarah N.

An in-depth exploration of the theory and techniques of cellular neurophysiology. Labs utilize extracellular and intracellular recording techniques to explore motor neuron and sensory receptor firing properties and to examine the ionic basis for resting and action potentials and synaptic transmission. Laboratory course.

Directed Individual Research

BIOL 424 - Hamilton, Eugene W., III (Bill)

Each student conducts primary research in partnership with a faculty member, by prior mutual agreement and according to departmental guidelines (available from biology faculty). Consult the department Web page or individual faculty for a description of current research areas. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. No more than six credit hours of work at the 400 level may apply toward the major.

Richmond Term Program

BIOL 464 - Wubah, Judith A.

This program is for students who have demonstrated an interest in a career in medicine. The Richmond Term Program combines an introductory experience in a medical practice with academic study of Immunology and infectious disease. It exposes the students to the process and problems of medicine through observations, seminars, and discussions. This is a faculty-supervised, off-campus experience with various physicians in Richmond, VA. This course does not meet major requirements.

The Business of Contemporary Art

BUS 125 - King, Elliott H. / Schwartz, Adam L.

This course combines finance, tax policy, marketing, economics, and art history to provide a 'nuts-and-bolts' view of how the contemporary art world operates. Appropriate for business students with an interest in contemporary art as well as museum studies and art history majors who wish to gain an understanding of business concepts in the art world, the course serves as preparation for students who may anticipate acquiring art for personal or business investment/use, serving on a museum board, pursuing employment in the art world, or advising high wealth clients on business matters related to art. Each topic begins with an overview of general principles before reviewing applications to the art world. For example, discussion of charitable giving covers the general tax rules of charitable deductions before discussing the specific rules related to art and museums. Additional course fee; see details link at http://go.wlu.edu/CourseOfferings .

FS: First-Year Seminar

BUS 180 - Straughan, Robert D. (Rob) / Oliver, Elizabeth G.

Topics vary by subject and term.

Spring 2018, BUS 180: First-Year Seminar: International Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability (4). Prerequisite: FY standing and instructor consent. ACCT 201 recommended. Do corporations have an obligation to manage their social impact in addition to maximizing sales, profits and stock price? What happens when these objectives are in conflict with each other? This course seeks to explore the relative roles of businesses, not-for-profits, government and individual citizens in managing social and environmental impact. Significant time is spent exploring case studies and interacting with senior management of various companies. Recent examples include Carlsberg, Dr. Pepper-Snapple Group, Dunkin' Brands, Norden, Novo Nordisk, Pandora, Proctor & Gamble, Starbucks, and Unilever. The class culminates with two weeks in Copenhagen visiting numerous Danish companies and developing a group research project on a topic chosen by the students. The time abroad also includes cultural excursions to places such as Frederiksborg Castle and Tivoli, dinners with Danish families, a harbor/canal tour, and a closing dinner featuring New Nordic cuisine. Oliver and Straughan.

Seminar in Organizational Behavior

BUS 301 - Schatten, Jeffrey M.

Offered from time to time when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, BUS 301-01: Leading Teams (4). Prerequisite: At least sophomore standing. This course is taught at the Middle River Regional Jail in Staunton, VA. Eight W&L students and eight soon-to-be-released inmates take the course together. Students learn from the professor and from one another as they explore the interpersonal processes and psychological factors that affect the way in which individuals interact and engage with one another. Students learn to understand conflict and how to effectively manage conflict in group settings. This course is mostly comprised of team activities and cases, which is intended to give students the tools, insight, and experience to better understand and manage teams. Schatten.

Seminar in Management

BUS 304 - Herbert, Richard H. (Rick)

Topics vary by term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, BUS 304-01: Money, Power, and Lies (3). Prerequisite: At least sophomore standing. Preference to BSADM or JOURF(JMCB) majors during the first round of registration. How do we design and lead organizations that foster ethical behavior? This course integrates the disciplines of business ethics and organizational behavior to address this question. Students examine the impact of organizational forces on the ability of individuals to act ethically in large, complex organizations, with special emphasis on the financial industry. Beginning with the era of the ENRON and Arthur Anderson scandals and continuing through the 2008 financial crisis, the issue of unethical behavior in large organizations has grown more disturbing. The major case study we address is the 2008 financial meltdown and its aftermath. Outside speakers interact with the class and add perspective. Past speakers have included financial executives and business journalists from Lehman Brothers, Goldman Sachs, and The Washington Post. Herbert.

Seminar in Management

BUS 304 - Christiansen, Anne M.

Topics vary by term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, BUS 304-02: Human Rights and Business: Changing Expectations in the Age of Transparency (4). Additional fee. Prerequisite: At least sophomore standing. Preference to BSADM majors or POV minors during the first round of registration. This course explores how business can work with human rights in a corporate context to manage stakeholder demands and expectations as well as to explore new opportunities. We investigate a number of different perspectives on business and human rights and engage in discussions of how businesses can manage human rights, which is by no means a simple task. The course includes a study tour to meet with relevant stakeholders in the field in Washington, D.C. Christiansen.

Special Topics in Real Estate Development

BUS 307 - Hoover, Scott A.

This course exposes students to issues related to commercial real estate development. Class lectures/discussions are supplemented with real-world case studies and site visits in an effort to provide students with practical knowledge in addition to theory and evidence. The focus of the course may change from term to term, so students should examine the syllabus for a given term carefully to better understand the course material. Potential topics include sustainability, international development, rebuilding cities through rehabilitation, or others.

Spring 2018, BUS 307-01: Sustainability in Real Estate Development (4). Prerequisites ACCT 201 and BUS 221. In this seminar, students are introduced to issues related to economic, environmental, and social sustainability in the context of commercial real estate development. Other course topics include cost-benefit relationships, identifying and managing key development risks, and effective communication of analyses. Students learn about the implementation of sustainable practices through case studies. The seminar includes travel to Washington, D.C., to tour properties and learn from key alumni in the field. Hoover.

Negotiation and Dispute Resolution in a Business Environment

BUS 349 - Youngman, Julia F. (Julie)

This course is designed to give students the abilities to negotiate successfully in a commercial environment and to create business solutions when a problem or dispute arises. Lectures, written materials, group projects, video, and role-play are utilized to explore the various theories of negotiation and types of dispute resolution, and to equip students with practical skills for forming and preserving business relationships and resolving business disputes as they occur.

Corporate Mergers, Leveraged Buyouts, and Divestitures

BUS 358 - Kester, George W.

This course focuses upon company valuation, mergers, leveraged buyouts, and divestitures. The interactive course makes extensive use of the case method in developing an understanding of business valuation methodologies and corporate financing decisions. Advanced-level finance concepts, models, and techniques are applied by students in the development of situational problem formulation, analysis, evaluation, and decision-making skills necessary to solve the unstructured problems faced in the practice of financial and business management. Classroom participation and group presentations are emphasized.

Creative Strategic Planning

BUS 371 - Bower, Amanda

Strategic planning (also called account or brand planning) is a philosophy of consumer research that fully incorporates the consumer in strategic developments. The course includes the types of qualitative techniques traditionally associated with social sciences (e.g., anthropology, sociology and psychology) in order to arrive at a brand (or other) strategy. The students must think creatively, independently, and interdependently as they apply the variety of research techniques, develop the strategic recommendations and present and defend both the research and recommendations. In addition to research techniques, students receive an orientation in relevant software (video editing, photo manipulation) and learn effective and persuasive presentation skills. The course is project-based, and the course culminates in the opportunity to present their work to the client (usually an advertising/marketing professional) for whom they've been working the course of the term.

Adventures in Advertainment

BUS 376 - Fox, Gavin L.

Open to both majors and non-majors. This course focuses on how to create strong marketing narratives and execute them through film-production techniques. The content draws heavily from creative writing, studio art, psychology, and branding to help students understand underlying themes of strong narrative development. In addition, much of the course is dedicated to learning how to use open-source film production software in order to bring these narratives to life in a team-based project.

Technology and Entrepreneurship

BUS 383 - Hess, Andrew M. (Drew)

The purpose of this course is to provide students with an understanding of process through which technological inventions are transformed into innovations.  Key works from scholars in the field will guide class discussions on understanding why managing innovation is complex, cross-functional, and a historically-dependent endeavor.  By the end of the class, students will have an appreciation for the entrepreneurial mindset, key actors in the start-up process, and the means through which technology is commercialized.  In addition to these discussions, students will travel to Silicon Valley to not only meet individuals who are a part of the recent start-up/technology scene, but also visit key locations that capture the history and context of innovation in the San Francisco/Bay Area.

Corporate Social Responsibility Practicum

BUS 391 - Straughan, Robert D. (Rob) / Oliver, Elizabeth G.

The course provides students an opportunity to explore corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability challenges from within an organization. The course is taught in Denmark, regarded as one of the most progressive economies in terms of CSR implementation. Initial reading, discussion, and research in the winter term prepare students to be matched with a Danish organization grappling with a CSR issue. Students work in small groups (four students) in a consultative capacity with a sponsoring Danish organization's decision makers. Students also participate in larger group discussions of issues confronted during the practicum and reflect on their experiences in both a personal journal and group blog. Sponsoring organizations include both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, and the nature of the issues varies from sponsor to sponsor. May be taken twice for degree credit if the topics are significantly different.

Directed Individual Study

BUS 401 - Youngman, Julia F. (Julie)

The objective is to permit students to follow a course of directed study in some field of management not presented in other courses or to emphasize a particular field of interest. Credits may not be used toward the major requirements in business administration.

Spring 2018, BUS 401-01: Directed Individual Study: Environmental Impacts (1). Prerequisite: Instructor consent. Research on legal issues and business considerations related to state law requirements to create, enhance, and preserve wetlands as mitigation for the environmental impacts of the development of privately owned property. Youngman .

Disorder and Chaos

CHEM 106 - Desjardins, Steven G. (Steve) / Abry, Andrea C.

An interdisciplinary introduction to the concepts underlying nonlinear dynamics and fractal geometry emphasizing the theories of chaos and complexity. Students study mathematical and computer modeling of physical and social systems and interpret the results of these models using graphical methods and written descriptions. Methods and concepts from calculus are demonstrated but no mathematics beyond high-school algebra is assumed. The laboratory component consists of a series of projects from diverse areas of the natural sciences, including pendulum motion, oscillating chemical reactions, and natural growth patterns. Laboratory course. Additional course fee.

Topics in Classical Civilization

CLAS 295 - Hagen, Adrienne M.

Selected subject areas in classical civilization. The topic selected varies from year to year. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, CLAS 295-01: Nature and the Environment in Antiquity (3). How did people in the ancient world conceive of nature from a philosophical, religious, and scientific standpoint? What attitudes did they hold towards animals and other forms of life? How did they shape the world around them through practices such as agriculture, mining, water management, and deforestation? Did they share our modern concerns about the use and conservation of natural spaces? Students in this course investigate these questions using literature, art, and artifacts from the ancient Mediterranean world (primarily Greece and Rome) as well as works by contemporary scholars. Readings are in English, with the opportunity to read portions of some texts in Greek or Latin, if desired, by students with prior knowledge of these languages. (HU) Hagen.

Introduction to Robotics

CSCI 250 - Khalifa, Moataz

This course combines readings from the contemporary robotics literature with hands-on lab experience building robots (equipment provided) and programming them to do various tasks. The lab experience culminates with a peer-judged competition of robot projects proposed and built during the second half of the term.

Android Application Development

CSCI 251 - Levy, Simon D.

Students learn how to develop programs for mobile Android devices, such as smart phones, tablets, and watches. Classroom lectures on mobile computing and a program-development environment are supplemented by extensive hands-on programming assignments, leading to team application projects. The course culminates with a presentation of each team's application.

Seminar

CSCI 397 - Levy, Simon D.

Readings and conferences for a student or students on topics agreed upon with the directing staff. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of six credits may be used toward the major requirements.

Dance Europe

DANC 202 - Davies, Jenefer M.

Contemporary modern dance is an art form that explores questions about the body, identity, and globalization. Choreographers experiment with their craft by examining the way in which we relate to the world around us. The globalization of dance leads to cultural interchange and critical thinking about our place in a larger society and includes an exchange of styles and ideas and a cultural reflection on how and why dance is made. Globalism creates a rich artistic atmosphere and contributes to a wide variety of styles. Students travel to the four centers of contemporary modern dance in Europe: Paris, London, Amsterdam, Brussels. We explore contemporary aesthetics of particular regions, how culture influences movement choices, and the new ways in which European audiences are adapting to new forms of expression.

Innovations in Publishing

DH 175 - Barry, Jeffrey S.

An intensive introduction to the publishing industry with a focus on digital innovations. A hands-on approach in a series of four laboratory sessions provides students with the ability to tackle a variety of technical scenarios for publishing. Students assemble an e-book from scratch and produce a print-on-demand book. Each class begins with news from the publishing industry and ends by examining job ads to understand the types of skills and experiences necessary for pursuing careers in this very broad field. This course focuses primarily on book publishing, particularly fiction.

Digital Humanities Studio

DH 190 - Mickel, Jason T. / Abdoney, Mary

This course examines the research questions that guide digital humanities methodology, reviews exemplary scholarly projects on the topic at hand, and offers significant hands-on experience exploring relevant tools. May be repeated for up to three degree credits if the topics are different.

East Asian Cinema

EALL 215 - Zhu, Yanhong

This course provides an introduction to and overview of contemporary East Asian cinema, including the Chinese-language cinemas of the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, and those of Japan and Korea. It focuses on the flourishing cinema of East Asia since the 1980s and provides a solid foundation in the successes and dominant tendencies of contemporary East Asian cinema and culture. Among the aims of the course are examining ways in which the contemporary East Asian cinemas and cultures are in dialogue with one another and looking at specific conditions and cultural forces at work in each unique case. The course also explores how the cinemas of East Asia reflect the changing cultural, economic, historical, political and social conditions of each country and how these cinemas and cultures are part of a larger redefinition of the idea of a national culture. Screenings and readings consist of exemplary works from each East Asian culture, organized around specific motifs, such as history, memory, identity, communication, love, and death.

Exploring Childhood in Denmark: Comparing Policies and Practices to the U.S.

ECON 239 - Diette, Timothy M. (Tim) / Sigler, Haley W.

Study Abroad Course. An exploration of childhood in Denmark and the United States. Students spend one week in the U.S. and three weeks in Denmark. Students have experiences inside schools, daycare facilities, and preschools in both economically advantaged and disadvantaged areas and speak with administrators and policymakers. With additional readings focusing on education policy and broader family policy in each country, students engage in discussions and reflections on the relative strengths and weaknesses of policies in each country.

Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History

ECON 286 - Guse, Aaron J. (Joseph) / Markowitz, Harvey J.

This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi ) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.

Special Topics in Economics

ECON 295 - Casey, James F. (Jim)

Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and are announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

Spring 2018, ECON 295-01: Introduction to Sustainable Development (3). Prerequisites: ECON 100 or 101. Open to first-years and sophomores only. In September 2015, many countries adopted a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2015-2030 to replace the Millennium Development Goals when they expired in 2015. These SDGs set targets for the three pillars of sustainable development -- reducing poverty, protecting the environment, and increasing equality of opportunity for those who may have had less-than-equal opportunity in the past. This course provides an introduction to the concept, theories, and potential outcomes of sustainable development. Additionally, we take a case-study approach and look at policies and programs that have aimed to address each of the SDGs. Students are introduced to sustainability through policies addressing oceans, biodiversity, climate, energy, education, social investment, and health. Casey.

Directed Individual Study

ECON 401 - Hooks, Linda M.

The objective is to permit students to follow a course of directed study in some field of economics not presented in other courses, or to emphasize a particular field of interest. May be repeated for degree credit with permission for different topics.

Fieldwork in Education

EDUC 210 - Moffa, Eric D.

Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This course provides students who are not in the teacher-education program an opportunity to observe and assist in elementary and secondary classrooms in the local school systems. It is intended for those students who wish to explore education as a profession or who are interested in post-graduate programs such as Teach for America or Fulbright teaching positions. Students in the teacher-education program should take the practicum courses that correspond to upper level education courses. May be repeated for up to 3 credits total.

Exploring Childhood in Denmark: Comparing Policies and Practices to the U.S.

EDUC 239 - Sigler, Haley W. / Diette, Timothy M. (Tim)

Study Abroad Course. An exploration of childhood in Denmark and the United States. Students spend one week in the U.S. and three weeks in Denmark. Students have experiences inside schools, daycare facilities, and preschools in both economically advantaged and disadvantaged areas and speak with administrators and policymakers. With additional readings focusing on education policy and broader family policy in each country, students engage in discussions and reflections on the relative strengths and weaknesses of policies in each country.

Topics in Creative Writing: Fiction

ENGL 203 - Wilson, Ricardo A.

A course in the practice of writing short fiction, involving workshops, literary study, and critical writing.

Winter 2018, ENGL 203-01: Topics in Creative Writing: Fiction (3). Prerequisite: Completion of FW FDR. A course in the practice of writing short fiction, involving workshops, literary study, and critical writing. (HA)

Spring 2018, ENGL 203-01: Topics in Creative Writing: Fiction: Introduction to the Short Story (4). Prerequisite: Completion of FW FDR. This introduction to fiction writing mixes a traditional approach to teaching the craft of short-story writing with a residency component. You begin to sharpen your tastes and inclinations by reading and responding to short stories from significant contributors to the form. The bulk of the writing of your final short story takes place during a ten-day writing residency at Skylark Nature Preserve and Lodge outside of Lexington. It is in this setting that we collectively build a writing community free of distraction in order to facilitate a better understanding of your own writing processes. During the residency, students have structured and unstructured time to take advantage of and gain inspiration from the surrounding space. (HA) Wilson .

Eco-Writing

ENGL 207 - Green, Leah N.

An expeditionary course in environmental creative writing. Readings include canonical writers such as Frost, Emerson, Auden, Rumi, and Muir, as well as contemporary writers such as W.S. Merwin, Mary Oliver, Janice Ray, Gary Snyder, Annie Dillard, Tich Nhat Hanh, Wendell Berry, and Robert Hass. We take weekly "expeditions" including creative writing hikes, a landscape painting exhibit, and a Buddhist monastery. "Expeditionary courses" sometimes involve moderate to challenging hiking. We research the science and social science of the ecosystems explored, as well as the language of those ecosystems. The course has two primary aspects: (1) reading and literary analysis of eco-literature (fiction, non-fiction, and poetry) and (2) developing skill and craft in creating eco-writing through the act of writing in these genres and through participation in weekly "writing workshop."

Creating Comics

ENGL 215 - Beavers, Leigh A. / Gavaler, Christopher P. (Chris)

A course which is both a creative-writing and a studio-art course. Students study graphic narratives as an art form that combines image-making and storytelling, producing their own multi-page narratives through the "writing" of images. The course includes a theoretical overview of the comics form, using a range of works as practical models.

Individual Shakespeare Play

ENGL 242 - Pickett, Holly C.

A detailed study of a single Shakespearean play, including its sources, textual variants, performance history, film adaptations and literary and cultural legacy. The course includes both performance-based and analytical assignments. The Spring 2018 focus is The Scottish Play: Macbeth and Its Afterlives.

I Heart Jane: Austen's Fan Cultures and Afterlives

ENGL 254 - Walle, Taylor F.

In the 20th and 21st centuries, Jane Austen has attained a celebrity that far exceeds the recognition she enjoyed during her lifetime. The fan culture that now surrounds Austen, her spunky heroines, and her swoon-worthy heroes rivals that of Star Wars or Harry Potter. Austen enthusiasts meet for book club, wear Regency costumes, convene for tea, and throw balls with period-appropriate music and dance. All of this mooning over Mr. Darcy, however, could easily be the object of Austen's own satire. Mercilessly lampooning silliness and frivolity, "dear Jane" was more inveterate cynic than hopeless romantic. How, then, did Austen transform from biting social satirist to patron saint of chick lit? Beginning with three of Austen's novels, and then turning to the fan cultures surrounding Pride and Prejudice, this course examines the nature of fandom, especially its propensity to change and adapt the very thing it celebrates. What does it mean to be a fan? Is there such a thing as an "original" or authorial meaning of a text? What do Austen's fan cultures say about both the novels themselves and the society that appropriates them?

Reading Lolita in Lexington

ENGL 285 - Brodie, Laura F.

This class uses Azar Nafisi's memoir, Reading Lolita in Tehran , as a centerpiece for learning about Islam, Iran, and the intersections between Western literature and the lives of contemporary Iranian women. We read The Great Gatsby , Lolita , and Pride and Prejudice , exploring how they resonated in the lives of Nafisi's students in Tehran. We also visit The Islamic Center of Washington and conduct journalistic research into attitudes about Iran and Islam.

Topics in American Literature

ENGL 293 - Conner, Marc C.

Studies in American literature, supported by attention to historical contexts. Versions of this course may survey several periods or concentrate on a group of works from a short span of time. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ENGL 293-01: Topics in American Literature: Ralph Ellison and the Making of America (3). Prerequisite: Completion of the FW requirement. A study of the writings of Ralph Ellison, the great African-American novelist, essayist, and short-story writer. The course examines Ellison's published and unpublished writings, as well as biographical and critical writings about Ellison's life and work. We pursue such questions as Ellison's concepts regarding American literature, music, history, region, language, and politics; the troubled and complex challenges of race in American culture; and how Ellison expresses what he called the American tragi-comedy in his work. (HL) Conner.

Topics in American Literature

ENGL 293 - Smout, Kary

Studies in American literature, supported by attention to historical contexts. Versions of this course may survey several periods or concentrate on a group of works from a short span of time. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ENGL 293-02: Topics in American Literature: Business in American Literature and Film (4) . Prerequisite: Completion of the FW requirement . In his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations , Adam Smith tells a powerful story of the free market as a way to organize our political and economic lives, a story that has governed much of the world ever since. This course studies that story, considers alternate stories of human economic organization, such as those of American Indian tribes, and sees how these stories have been acted out in American business and society. We study novels, films, short stories, non-fiction essays, autobiographies, advertisements, websites, some big corporations, and some local businesses in the Lexington area. Our goal is not to attack American business but to understand its characteristic strengths and weaknesses so we can make the best choices about how to live and work happily in a free market society. (HL) Smout.

Spring-Term Seminar in Literary Studies

ENGL 295 - Ferguson, Andrew J.

Students in this course study a group of works related by theme, by culture, by topic, by genre, or by the critical approach taken to the texts. Involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ENGL 295-01: Video/Games (4). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. Some have called videogames "the art form of the 21st century"; others have denied that they could ever be art at all. Whatever one's view on their aesthetic possibilities, though, videogames have become ubiquitous, filling our spare moments, providing new and alternate identities, and sparking cultural divides. This course studies and briefly surveys the medium of the videogame, with an emphasis on developing skills in critical and cultural analysis as well as rudimentary game design. This inquiry stretches from the beginnings of the genre in analog (board or card) games and pinball, through the era of early computing and cartridge-based consoles, through to the highly sophisticated always-online formats of the present day. The course ends in the production of one analog (board or card) game, one digital story-game on the Twine platform, and one essay drawing on extensive engagement with a single game text. (HL) Ferguson.

Spring-Term Seminar in Literary Studies

ENGL 295 - Wheeler, Lesley M.

Students in this course study a group of works related by theme, by culture, by topic, by genre, or by the critical approach taken to the texts. Involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ENGL 295-02: African-American Poetry (4). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. A study of African-American poetry and poetics, with an emphasis on memory and history. While we focus mainly on 20th- and 21st-century works, the presence of the past is a recurring motif in our readings and conversations. This course culminates in a digital-humanities project about race at Washington and Lee, including text and images of various kinds, but emphasizing literature as a form of history. (HL) Wheeler.

Spring-Term Seminar in Literary Studies

ENGL 295 - Bufkin, Sydney M.

Students in this course study a group of works related by theme, by culture, by topic, by genre, or by the critical approach taken to the texts. Involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ENGL 295-03: Transforming Literature: Fan Fiction, Literary Mashups, and Other Canon Fodder (4). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. This course considers ways that people take works of literature, classic or otherwise, and transform them into something new. We read literary works ranging from "The Yellow Wallpaper" to "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" to Sherlock Holmes stories, as well as cartoons, poems, videos and text conversations that remake, remix and transform those literary works. We think about what makes something literature, what makes something fan fiction, and what fan fiction can show us about classic works of literature. We also create our own literary transformations, analyze the role of the Internet in fan culture, and experiment with transformative technologies. (HL) Bufkin.

Topics in Creative Writing

ENGL 391 - Igloria, Luisa A.

An advance workshop in creative writing. Genres and topics will vary, but all versions involve intensive reading and writing. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ENGL 391-01: Topic: Exploring Prose Poems and Other Hybrid Forms (3). Prerequisite: Students who have taken a previous creative writing workshop in any genre should write to Mrs. O'Connell at oconnells@wlu.edu to obtain instructor consent. Other students should send a short sample of their creative writing to Professor Wheeler at wheelerlm@wlu.edu. Students explore how the language, devices, forms, music, cadences, and impulses of poetry, prose, and related disciplines may be brought to bear on the creation of hybrid forms. We read, discuss, and write reflective essays about hybrid works that blur or multiply a text's visual, aural, sonic, intellectual, emotional, tactile, political, cultural, and other effects. Students also create at least one hybrid piece each week and prepare a larger final project or portfolio. Above all, they playfully engage practices outside their usual comfort zones, and in generating new work, push towards intellectually and aesthetically challenging experiences. (HA) Igloria.

Topics in Literature in English since 1900

ENGL 394 - Gavaler, Christopher P. (Chris)

Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English since 1900 with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2017, ENGL 394-01: Advanced Seminar: Celluloid Shakespeare (4). Prerequisite: ENGL 299. The films adapted from or inspired by William Shakespeare's plays are a genre unto themselves. We study a selection of films, not focused on their faithfulness to the original playscript, but on the creative choices and meanings of the distinct medium of film. We see how the modern era has transmuted the plays through the lens of contemporary sensibility, politics, and culture—and through this new visual mode of storytelling. This course is very much an exploration of how to interpret and appreciate film broadly, as we learn the concepts and lexicon of film with Shakespeare as our case study. Our methods vary: sometimes we study the play in detail and compare several film versions, or we see a film fresh—without having read the play—to approach it as a work of art on its own terms. We hear reports from students about additional films to expand the repertoire of films we study and enjoy. The films we view range from multiple versions of Hamlet, Macbeth , and A Midsummer Night's Dream , to adaptations of As You Like It, Titus Andronicus , and Henry V , to original Shakespeare-inspired films such as Forbidden Planet, A Thousand Acres , and My Own Private Idaho . (HL) Dobin.

Topics in Literature in English in Counter Traditions

ENGL 395 - Rajbanshi, Reema

Enrollment limited. A seminar course on literature written in English in an area of "counter traditions" with special emphasis on research and discussion. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, ENGL 395-01: Planetary Lines in World Literature (3) . Prerequisite: ENGL 299. How do we read world literature in the Age of the Anthropocene? The growing debates around environmental crises have an emerging literary counterpart—whether these be realist novels on climate refugees in the Global South, eco-fiction works on dystopic survival, or documentary representations of a dissolving and privatizing landscape. This reading-intensive course examines multi-genre depictions from North America, Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania of a human-impacted ecology. The question of "world" as universal and "planet" as material are thus considered, as are aesthetic moves narrating dis/placement and non/human relations. Course work includes in-class writing, group presentations, and a hybrid final paper that may incorporate creative elements. A midterm field project engaging with translation, as an underlying aspect of worlds in world literature, helps students collaborate across disciplinary and linguistic interests. (HL) Rajbanshi.

Ethnographic Study of Modem Day Slavery in Ghana: Creating Short Documentary Film

FILM 251 - Sandberg, Stephanie L.

Spring Term Abroad. This course examines culture and social-justice issues in Ghana, particularly focusing on issues of modern day slavery. Together, we study Ghanaian culture, visiting cultural sites and learning about how the country is faring with modern-day slavery. We collect true stories through ethnographic study, interviewing and filming to create short documentaries for presentation on campus at the end of the spring term. We examine the development of modern-day slavery in Ghana, visiting organizations and government programs that are working on the issue as well as listening to the stories of those who have been rescued from slavery.

Music in the Films of Stanley Kubrick

FILM 285 - Gaylard, Timothy R. (Tim)

How does music add power and meaning to a film? What are the connections between the flow of music and the flow of a dramatic narrative? How does music enhance visual images? The course will focus on the pre-existent classical compositions chosen by Stanley Kubrick for his movies 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), A Clockwork Orange (1971), Barry Lyndon (1975), and The Shining (1980). The ability to read music is not a requirement for this course.

Spring Term Topics in French Civilization

FREN 285 - McCormick, Stephen P.

A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization through direct experience abroad in France and/or Francophone countries. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, FREN 285-01: Topic in French Civilization: Contemporary French Society through Film (4). Prerequisite: FREN 162 or 164, or equivalent. Open to intermediate and advanced levels. Taught entirely in the southern French city Toulouse and offering an alternative view of France from what many experience in Paris. During the four weeks, students are introduced to the most important issues in modern French society, including immigration, university life, social justice, art, culture, and gastronomy. The course uses contemporary French cinema as a platform for discussion, debate, and advanced grammar review. Class sessions are conversation intensive and review the most difficult points of French grammar through cultural and conversational contexts. An integral part of the course is connecting the issues examined through film with the urban and social fabric of Toulouse. Students are required to use their French to interact with local non-profit agencies and investigate cultural and social issues on-site. The ultimate goals of the program are to boost students' confidence in spoken and written French, develop an awareness of social issues in contemporary French society, and learn how to function independently abroad. During their stay in Toulouse, students are also enrolled in an intensive grammar-review course taught by a French professor, accommodating a variety of linguistic levels. Students live with host families and go on two different excursions, to Albi and Carcassonne. McCormick.

Earth Lab

GEOL 105 - Harbor, David J.

Preference given to first-years and sophomores. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students. Information about the course is made available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Lab fee required.

Spring 2018, GEOL 105-01: FS: Earth Lab: Sand (4). First-Year seminar. A Jockey John Robinson Seminar. Prerequisite: First-Year standing. Sand is everywhere. It is between our toes at the beach, sweeping beneath us in rivers, and blown against us in stinging desert storms. And yet, this ubiquitous, ordinary substance tells incredible stories of plate tectonic upheavals, vast seas covering now-dry continents, and journeys through rivers, into inland deserts, and along ocean shores. This field-based seminar explores the origin and nature of sand, its journeys, and how geologists use observations in modern environments along with detailed microscopic and field descriptions of rocks to define the conditions of landscapes long past. Participation requires camping on eastern barrier islands, travel to the Colorado Plateau of Utah, and a healthy imagination. Most expenses are covered by the Jockey John Robinson Fund. (SL) Harbor.

Earth Lab

GEOL 105 - Greer, Mary L. (Lisa)

Preference given to first-years and sophomores. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students. Information about the course is made available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Lab fee required.

Spring 2018, GEOL 105-02: Earth Lab: Is the Earth Worth Saving (4). Can we 'save the earth'? What does that really mean? This course explores both the humbling existence of humans in deep time (4.6 billion years), and the potentially profound impacts of humans on the earth environment. Students consider whether it is the earth or only ourselves that we wish to 'save'. We study how rocks reveal a deep and rich history of changing climate and environment with time, and then compare this record with what we know about human-influenced climate and environmental change in the last few hundred years. We reflect on what, if anything, we should do with this information. We evaluate the effectiveness of efforts to 'protect' the environment, specifically with regards to marine-protected areas. Extensive field exploration of the geology of Rockbridge County and a week-long trip to Belize, to visit protected and unprotected coral reefs. (SL) Greer.

Earth Lab

GEOL 105 - Rahl, Jeffrey M.

Preference given to first-years and sophomores. The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students. Information about the course is made available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements. Lab fee required.

Spring 2018, GEOL 105-03: Earth Lab:  The Geology of Virginia (4). No prerequisites. Suitable for all students. From the billion-year-old rocks of the Blue Ridge to the sediments actively accumulating at the modern shore, the geology of Virginia preserves a rich and fascinating record of Earth history. Students explore the geology of Virginia, with emphasis on the physical processes responsible for rock formation and landscape evolution. Topics include: plate tectonics and mountain building, volcanism, metamorphism, erosion, sedimentation, and coastal processes. The course takes full advantage of our local setting and features many field trips, including at least one overnight trip to the coastal plain. (SL) Rahl .

Regional Geology

GEOL 373 - Connors, Christopher D. (Chris) / Ball, Stephen M.

The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside fieldwork with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. Information about the course is available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements.

Spring 2018, GEOL 373-01: Regional Geology of New Zealand (4). Prerequisites: Open to geology majors only. Instructor consent, two geology courses numbered 200 or above, and GEOL 395. A study of the regional geology of New Zealand. This remarkably geologically diverse land allows students to learn about coastal and neotectonic geomorphology, structural geology and tectonics, glacial geology, glaciology, volcanology, metamorphic petrology, and stratigraphy, through hands-on direct exposure to beautiful examples available at the surface in New Zealand. Connors.

Traces of Empire: Exploring the Cultural Centers of Austria and Hungary

GERM 305 - Prager, Debra N.

A four-week advanced language and culture class based in Graz, Austria, with a particular focus on the multi-national, ·polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire and its impact on modern Austria's multi-ethnic, multi-cultural identity. Language and culture classes take place in the University of Graz's language center, Treffpunkt Sprachen. Afternoon discussion classes focus on Austrian culture, supported by readings from the texts, film screenings, and visits to important sites and events in Graz and its environs. During excursions to Vienna and Budapest, we compare the two rival imperial capitals of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, visit the opera houses and national art collections, and consider both the function of art in forging national - and imperial - identity, and the role of power in the construction of "taste."

Internship Abroad

GERM 453 - Youngman, Paul A.

Supervised experience in a German-speaking country in an agency, research organization, or other venue approved by the department. Requires at least 48 work hours over no fewer than four weeks and a research paper in addition to off-campus activities.

Scenes from Chinese History

HIST 105 - Bello, David A.

Film is one of the 20th century's most influential forms of mass communication and, consequently, has been one medium for the creation and maintenance of nation-states. In this sense, no film can be considered as mere entertainment entirely divorced from the social, political, economic and, ultimately, historical context in which it was produced. This is particularly true of modern nation-states "invented" during the 20th century like the People's Republic of China (PRC). This course is intended to explore how contemporary PRC cinema has interpreted Chinese history, as represented by some of that history's pre-PRC milestones of conflict in the Qin and Qing dynasties as well as the Republican period. Students evaluate the films critically as historical products of their own times as well as current historical narratives of the past by examining each event through a pair of films produced at different times in PRC history. Students also examine post-1949 changes in China and its interpretation of its pre-1949 history, and so, by seeing how a country interprets its history at a given time.

Paris: History, Image, Myth, Part II

HIST 210 - Horowitz, Sarah

Students may not take this course and ARTS 223. Participants in this course spend four weeks in Paris asking the following questions: how has history shaped Parisian life and Parisian spaces? How can we use photography to document the city's changing landscape as well as understand its rich past? Indeed, how has photography--the development of which is closely tied to Paris's history--altered the fabric of the city? Topics include the social and political transformations of the 19th century, the shifting geography of artistic Paris, and contemporary trends such as immigration and gentrification. This course is taught in close collaboration with ARTS 223, creating an interdisciplinary context for students to explore the relationship of photography to the modern history and contemporary issues of Paris.

Decline and Fall of the Soviet Union and the Resurgence of Russia

HIST 222 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

This course analyzes the reasons for the decline of the Soviet Union commencing in the latter part of the Brezhnev era and its collapse under the weight of the failed reforms of Gorbachev. It further traces the fragmentation of the USSR into fifteen republics and the simultaneous devolution of authority within the Russian Republic under Yeltsin. The course concludes with the remarkable reassertion of state power under Putin up to the present. Students write an essay assessing the Yeltsin transition and engage in a class debate at the end of the term on the prospects for Russia's future.

Discover Scotland: History and Culture through Theater

HIST 227 - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki) / Levy, Jemma A.

Spring Term Abroad. For a small nation of just over 5 million, Scotland looms remarkably large in our historical, cultural, and artistic imagination. This course travels to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and the Highlands to allow students to go beyond the mythologizing and romance to discover Scotland as it has been experienced and performed by the Scottish people. Using Scotland's vibrant and remarkably political theater scene as our jumping-off point, we study this country's history and culture, examining the powerful intersections of myth and reality that shape Scottish identity past and present. We pay particular attention to the dichotomies -- Highland and Lowland; urban and rural; separatist and unionist; poor and rich; Protestant and Catholic, etc. -- that make modern Scotland such a fascinating subject of historical and artistic inquiry.

Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History

HIST 269 - Richier, Leah A.

A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, HIST 269-01: Death in 19th-Century United States (3). A study of the death and dying during the 19th century in the United States. Topics include Presidential deaths, massacres of Native Americans, African-American cemeteries, Edgar Allen Poe, the 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic, the murder of New York City prostitutes, and the American Civil War. Includes investigation of gravestones, memorials, and family plots at Stonewall Jackson Cemetery in Lexington, Virginia, and Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia. (HU) Richier.

Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History

HIST 269 - Stoler, Mark A.

A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, HIST 269-02: Winning World War II: U.S. and Allied Grand Strategies, 1940-1945 (3). Prerequisite: Intiail registration open to sophomores, juniors, or seniors. Open to first-years with instructor consent. The United States fought World War II as part of a coalition, one of the most successful wartime coalitions in history. This seminar explores how and why it did so, and why the Allied effort was so successful. Emphasis is placed on U.S. strategic planning, its relationship to U.S. foreign policies, the ensuing conflicts between U.S. strategies and policies and those desired by its British and Soviet allies, and the ways in which these conflicts were resolved by Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin. Students also focus on civil-military relations and Allied diplomacy during the war, as well as how and why the alliance collapsed after victory had been achieved. Readings include key primary and secondary sources. (HU)  Stoler.

Speaking and Being Zulu in South Africa

HIST 277 - Tallie, Tyrone H., Jr. (T.J.)

"Sanibonani, abangani bami!" ("Greetings, my friends!") Want to learn more about an African language and culture? We spend the first two weeks intensively learning isiZulu, a language spoken by over 10 million people in South Africa. We also learn about the history of the Zulu people in southern Africa, covering topics from colonialism, racial discrimination, gender and sexuality, and music, and we enjoy Zulu music and film. "Masifunde ngamaZulu!" ("Let's learn about the Zulus!")

Seminar: Topics in History

HIST 295 - Rupke, Nicolaas A.

A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, HIST 295-01: Place and Race: Euro-Exceptionalism in Late-Modern Science (3). The notion of Euro-exceptionalism has been critically discussed ever since the decades following WW II when decolonization, post-colonialism, and anti-racism began to attract widespread scholarly attention. Much of the critical literature has focused on the economics and politics of European imperialism. Little attention has been paid to the fact that Eurocentricity and Caucasian-supremacist thought received significant scientific input during the period 1750-1950. In this course, the involvement of science in the construction of Euro-exceptionalism are comprehensively explored, in particular the role played by Humboldtian geographical science and Darwinian evolution theory. (HU) Rupke.

Seminar: 9/11 and Modern Terrorism

HIST 367 - Senechal, Roberta H.

Terrorism is a form of collective violence famously illustrated in the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington on September 11, 2001. This course provides an intensive interdisciplinary examination of the origins of the 9/11 attacks and the terrorist organization that launched them. The course also addresses the impact of the attacks and the future prospects of mass violence against civilians, as well as the role of the media in covering (and dramatizing) terrorism. Much of the course focuses on the social divisions and conflicts that lead to terrorism and its increasingly lethal nature over time. Topics include "old terrorism" (as seen in Northern Ireland and Algeria), "new terrorism" (such as that associated with Al Qaeda), the logic of terrorist recruitment, and the nature of and spread of weapons of mass destruction.

Directed Individual Study

HIST 401 - Bidlack, Richard H. (Rich)

A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered by other courses. May be repeated for degree credit with permission.

Directed Individual Study

HIST 401 - Bello, David A.

A course which permits the student to follow a program of directed reading or research in an area not covered by other courses. May be repeated for degree credit with permission.

Research Preparation in the Sciences

INTR 200 - I'Anson, Helen

This course is composed of seminar and workshop modules on such topics as: critical reading of research papers; use of relevant primary literature in experimental design; integrative approaches to research questions; use of quantitative methods and modeling; data acquisition, record-keeping, and analysis; research ethics; introduction to specific lab techniques used in research; scientific writing and data presentation. In addition, students develop and present a research plan for their research project that is discussed and critiqued by the whole group. Laboratory course.

Study Abroad Reflections and Assessment

INTR 298 - Rush, Mark E. / Dittman, D Scott (Scott) / Irby, Cynthia G. (Cindy)

Before the end of the final term in which the student is on approved study abroad, students submit to the Director of International Education a reflective essay, to be designed and assigned for each term abroad by the faculty's Global Liaisons. The liaisons review student reflections, assess them with regard to Washington and Lee's learning outcomes for study abroad, and issue a brief report at the end of each academic year.

Spring Option

INTR 995 - Dittman, D Scott (Scott)

The Spring Option allows students to use the spring term of their sophomore, junior and/or senior years to engage in an internship, service program, employment, travel or educational program that will broaden and enhance their collegiate education. The faculty offer this opportunity to encourage students to seek creative outlets not provided in the normal academic setting. Spring option policies and requirements can be found under Academic Regulations .

INTR 998 - Dittman, D Scott (Scott) / Rush, Mark E. / Irby, Cynthia G. (Cindy)

Supervised Study Abroad: Beginning Japanese

JAPN 100 - Ikeda Yuba, Janet

Spring Term Abroad course. This course is designed to introduce the Japanese language and culture to students with little or no previous language background. Classes are held at the Ishikawa Foundation for International Exchange, a prestigious Japanese institution in Kanazawa. Students live with a host family and can experience typical Japanese daily life. The program includes field trips to points of historical interest and many cultural activities.

Supervised Study Abroad: Second-Year Japanese

JAPN 265 - Ikeda Yuba, Janet

Spring Term Abroad course. This course is designed to introduce the Japanese language and culture to students, to introduce the culture and society of Japan, and to prepare students for third-year Japanese study. Classes are held at the Ishikawa Foundation for International Exchange, a prestigious Japanese institution in Kanazawa. Students live with a host family and can experience typical Japanese daily life. The program includes field trips to points of historical interest and many cultural activities.

Directed Individual Study

JAPN 401 - Ikeda Yuba, Janet

A course that allows students to follow a program of directed reading with a more intensive exposure to written texts than is possible in courses oriented toward grammar and conversation. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Introduction to the Politics and Policies of Global Communication

JOUR 150 - Abah, Adedayo O. (Dayo)

Intended for any first-year or sophomore; open to others by instructor consent. An introduction to a series of debates centered on the media, power, and globalization, locating these in their historical and cultural perspective and exploring ways in which media power is contested. Topics include the theories and problems related to international function of the news media, the entertainment industry, and the telecommunications sector; the creation of the global media marketplace; the evolution of international communication in the Internet age; and international governance structures.

The Magazine: Past, Present, Future

JOUR 215 - Cumming, Douglas O.

Magazines are probably the most resilient mass medium we have, which is good news in the digital age. Even though the magazine business was hit hard in recent years, a look at its past and future is far more cheering. In this class, students learn how to investigate a magazine from the past as a way of understanding the magazine business from the inside. They also learn from current magazine editors, writers, and publishers, with a four-night trip to New York City (additional fee required). And students create teams to produce a tablet-ready magazine prototype.

Cross-Cultural Documentary Filmmaking

JOUR 266 - Finch, Kevin D.

The United States is a melting pot of nationalities and cultures. As people move to the U.S. from other countries they go through cross-cultural adaptation, and identity becomes an issue for everyone. Students in this course work in three-person teams to produce five-minute documentaries on cross-cultural adaptation by an ethnic community in our region or by selected international students at Washington and Lee. Students are expected to immerse themselves in learning about the home countries and current communities of their subjects. The course includes instruction in the techniques of documentary film-making, allowing students to develop their writing, storytelling, shooting and editing skills.

Topics in Journalism and Mass Communications

JOUR 295 - Colon, Aly A.

Study of a selected topic in journalism or mass communications. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Appropriate for non-majors.

Spring 2017, JOUR 295-01: News Media and Religion: Faith, Facts, or Fiction? (4). Open to non-majors. This class explores how the news media cover religion and whether this coverage helps or hinders understanding. Where do reporters turn for facts about religions? Do journalists reflect accurately and authentically religious lives? How do the news media depict people with extreme beliefs? Students examine these and other questions through readings, discussion, and interviews with experts and people of faith. Field trips allow personal exposure to places of worship. Colón.

In-depth Reporting

JOUR 356 - Locy, Toni R.

The principles and techniques of developing and creating enterprising, heavily researched journalistic work for the mass media. Students produce in-depth work for newspapers, magazines, radio, television and the World Wide Web. Extensive group work is required.

Media Management & Entrepreneurship

JOUR 377 - Swasy, Alecia

A seminar examining trends and challenges in media management, including a close examination of industry economics, changing reader and viewer habits, revenue and profit pressures, and labor and management issues unique to the news profession.

Special Topics in Literature in Translation

LIT 295 - Crockett, Roger A.

A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, LIT 295-01: Switzerland's Postwar Literary Masters: Max Frisch and Friedrich Dürrenmatt (3). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. Novels, short stories, dramas and essays from Switzerland's two greatest postwar authors—works that were both a source of national pride and also often embarrassment for the Swiss Confederation.  Frisch and Dürrenmatt were their nation's staunch supporters and tireless critics, a paradox formed from the attitudes toward the elusive concept of patriotism that these friends and literary rivals held.  Distrust of ideology, loss of identity, the nature of justice and honor, culpability for the Holocaust and communal responsibility for society's ills are shared concerns and are topics for reflection and analysis in the course. (HL) Crockett.

Special Topics in Literature in Translation

LIT 295 - Alon, Shir

A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, LIT 295-02: Nomads: Migration and Displacement in Middle Eastern Cultures (3). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. Starting from the mythical figures of the Arab Bedouin and the Wandering Jew, the readings explore their modern renditions in Middle Eastern texts and films. We discuss themes such as migration, exile and cosmopolitanism, gendered nomadism, ecology and settlement, colonial anxieties and aftermaths, Orientalism, Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia, and nomadic forms of reading and writing. (HL) Alon.

Special Topics in Literature in Translation

LIT 295 - Radulescu, Domnica V.

A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, LIT 295-03: Vampires, Spirits and Other Friendly Creatures. An incursion into East European Prose, Theater and Film (3). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. An exploration of the fantastic and the supernatural in several works of literature, theater, and film by East European writers and film makers. The course deconstructs Western projections of vampiric presences and other such supernatural creatures onto East European cultures and focuses on several works of literature and film from Eastern Europe and about Eastern Europe. Weekly film screenings. Assignments vary from reaction essays to research papers to creative writing and performances. (HL) Radulescu.

Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics

MATH 301 - Finch-Smith, Carrie E.

Basic analytical tools and principles useful in mathematical investigations, from their beginning stages, in which experimentation and pattern analysis are likely to play a role, to their final stages, in which mathematical discoveries are formally proved to be correct. Strongly recommended for all prospective mathematics majors.

Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics

MATH 301 - Beanland, Kevin J.

Basic analytical tools and principles useful in mathematical investigations, from their beginning stages, in which experimentation and pattern analysis are likely to play a role, to their final stages, in which mathematical discoveries are formally proved to be correct. Strongly recommended for all prospective mathematics majors.

Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics

MATH 301 - Hardy, Stephen R.

Basic analytical tools and principles useful in mathematical investigations, from their beginning stages, in which experimentation and pattern analysis are likely to play a role, to their final stages, in which mathematical discoveries are formally proved to be correct. Strongly recommended for all prospective mathematics majors.

The Mathematics of Puzzles and Games

MATH 369 - Dymacek, Wayne M.

The application of mathematics to puzzles and games. A brief survey on the designs of tournaments. The puzzles and games include but are not limited to the Rubik's Cube, poker, blackjack, and peg solitaire.

Seminar

MATH 383 - Abrams, Aaron D.

Readings and conferences for a student or students on topics agreed upon with the directing staff. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Note: Seminar and research offerings are contingent upon the demonstrated need and aptitude of the student for independent work in mathematics and upon the availability of departmental resources.

Spring 2018, MATH 383-01: Seminar: Mathematics of Tilings (4). Prerequisites: MATH 321 or instructor consent. Tilings are among the oldest and most recognizable geometric patterns in the world. The mathematical study of tilings overlaps with combinatorics, geometry, algebra, analysis, number theory, and topology. This seminar explores several aspects of the mathematics of tilings, including open problems of current research interest. Abrams .

Physics and Perception of Music

MUS 102 - Erickson, Jonathan C. (Jon)

Explores physical principles of sound production and music perception. Hands-on investigation is emphasized. Topics include: wave properties and propagation, harmonic series and spectral analysis, tuning temperaments, response of the human ear, auditory processing, room acoustics, audio recording and reproduction technologies, characterization of various instrument families (strings, brass, woodwind, percussion, and voice).

Chamber Ensembles

MUS 112 - Dobbins, Christopher L. (Chris)

This course may be repeated. Small chamber groups consisting of vocalists and instrumentalists are created to perform music. 

Bluegrass Ensemble offers students the opportunity to study and perform the traditional music of Appalachia in which improvisation is encouraged.

Brass Ensemble  offers students the opportunity to study and perform literature for brass instruments in various combinations.

String Ensemble  offers students the opportunity to study and perform literature for violin, viola, cello, and double bass in various combinations.

Woodwind Ensemble offers students the opportunity to study and perform literature for woodwind instruments in various combinations.

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141B - Ahlhorn, Charles R. (Ross)

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141J - Artwick, Thomas B. (Tom)

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141O - McCorkle, William F., Jr. (Bill)

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141P - Watanabe Petty, Shuko

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141P - Petty, Byron W.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141S - Harper, Jesse J.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141S - Goudimova, Julia

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141S - McArdle, Jaime H.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141S - Matheson, Bryan E.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141V - Parker, Lori M. / Lynch, Shane M.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141W - Earle, Shawn

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: First Year

MUS 141W - Dobbins, Heather F.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Recital Attendance

MUS 200 - Parker, Gregory B. (Greg)

Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. A course focused on the development of listening and performance skills through attendance at Department of Music concerts and recitals. Students attend at least 75 percent of the afternoon and evening events sponsored by the Department of Music. Students must also attend the music convocation that takes place one Friday afternoon each month during the fall and winter terms. Music majors must complete the course each term in residence after declaring the major. Music minors must complete two terms.

Applied Music: Second Year

MUS 241P - Watanabe Petty, Shuko

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: Second Year

MUS 241P - McCorkle, William F., Jr. (Bill)

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: Second Year

MUS 241S - Harper, Jesse J.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: Second Year

MUS 241S - Goudimova, Julia

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: Second Year

MUS 241S - McArdle, Jaime H.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: Second Year

MUS 241S - Matheson, Bryan E.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Applied Music: Second Year

MUS 241V - Parker, Lori M. / Lynch, Shane M.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Music in the Films of Stanley Kubrick

MUS 285 - Gaylard, Timothy R. (Tim)

How does music add power and meaning to a film? What are the connections between the flow of music and the flow of a dramatic narrative? How does music enhance visual images? The course will focus on the pre-existent classical compositions chosen by Stanley Kubrick for his movies 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), A Clockwork Orange (1971), Barry Lyndon (1975), and The Shining (1980). The ability to read music is not a requirement for this course.

Topics in Music

MUS 295 - Euprasert, Den (Denny)

Selected studies in music with a focus on history and culture, non-classical genres, ethnomusicological topics, or performance. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, MUS 295-01: Special Topics in Music: Southeast Asian Musical Cultures (3). Survey of the music of the Southeast Asian continent and its role in society, religion, history, and politics. Examines theoretical systems, modes of learning, musical instruments, ensembles, and performance practices by cultural groups, as well as significant genres in national and folk traditions. Explores the impact of westernization and modernization on musical cultures as well as new musical practices in the world music markets of the 21st century. Music genres include, but are not limited to, folk, court, popular, and classical. No formal music training is required for this course. (HA). Euprasert.

Applied Music: Fourth Year

MUS 441V - Parker, Lori M.

One credit is earned for ten 45-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours practice a week during fall and winter terms; eight 55-minute private lessons and a minimum of five hours of practice a week are required during the spring term. ($360 lesson fee)

Directed Individual Research

NEUR 423 - Watson, Fiona L.

Each student conducts primary research in partnership with a neuroscience faculty member by prior mutual agreement.Consult with individual faculty for a description of current research areas. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. No more than six credits may apply towards the major.

Directed Individual Research

NEUR 423 - Blythe, Sarah N.

Each student conducts primary research in partnership with a neuroscience faculty member by prior mutual agreement.Consult with individual faculty for a description of current research areas. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. No more than six credits may apply towards the major.

Therapeutic Exercise

PE 102 - Williamson, Joshua D.

A specialized course employing physical rehabilitation techniques. Students with an acute physical impairment are assigned through consultation with the University physician in lieu of other physical education courses. May be repeated once for degree credit.

Aerobic Swimming

PE 111 - Gardner, Kateri A. (Kami) / LaBerge, Logan E.

A course designed to improve stroke technique and endurance.  Not to be taken after completing PE 205 or 213. May be taken once.

Golf

PE 151 - Gyscek, Peter J. / Carralero, Kelsie A.

Golf. Not to be taken after completing PE 209. (Additional special fees and must provide own transportation.)

Aerobic Running

PE 154 - Freeman, Dana L.

Aerobic running. Not to be taken after completing PE 200 or 212.

Aerobic Running

PE 154 - Dager, Michael J. (Mike)

Aerobic running. Not to be taken after completing PE 200 or 212.

Weight Training

PE 155 - Colliton, James G. (Gavin) / Koch, Eric M.

Weight Training

Weight Training

PE 155 - Wills, Regina A. (Gina) / Berlin, Jonathan S. (Jon)

Weight Training

Team Sports

PE 157 - Clancy, Christine K. / Lang, Kacie M.

This course involves basketball, volleyball, and soccer which will take up three quarters of the course. The fourth component will be any combination of team games/sports from the following: Team Handball, Softball, Ultimate Frisbee, kickball, and other games. Students will learn the fundamentals of each sport, including how to play and officiate.

Tennis

PE 158B - Detwiler, David A.

Beginning and intermediate tennis. Not to be taken after completing PE 211.

Tennis

PE 158I - Ness, Erin G. / Churchill, Samuel R. (Sam)

Beginning and intermediate tennis. Not to be taken after completing PE 211.

Badminton

PE 159 - McHugh, Christopher D., Jr. (Chris) / Phillips, Steven A.

Badminton

Badminton

PE 159 - Shearer, Nathan W.

Badminton

Volleyball

PE 160 - Snyder, Bryan L. / Gibson, Taylor L.

Volleyball. Not to be taken after completing PE 214.

Racquetball

PE 162 - White, Theodore W. (Ted)

Racquetball

Racquetball

PE 162 - Jones, Robert W. (Bobby)

Racquetball

Squash

PE 166 - Spalding, Brandon P.

Squash

Squash

PE 166 - LeRose, Garrett M.

Squash

Mountain Biking

PE 176 - Piranian, Rolf G.

Mountain Biking. Special fees apply .

Fly Fishing

PE 183 - Dick, James

This course is intended to introduce students to the recreation, sport, and art of fly fishing. Students develop knowledge and skills of fly fishing from a variety of approaches. As recreation, students learn to cast a fly-rod into cold-water streams of the Appalachian Mountains. As sport, students gain skills to catch cold-water fish species (rainbow, brown, and brook trout) and warm-water species (smallmouth bass, rock bass, sunfish). Students are introduced to the ancient art of tying dry flies, nymphs, and streamers of natural and artificial materials. This course also introduces students to stream conservation and restoration and current threats to native fish populations.  Guest lecturers may provide advanced fly-tying and casting technique instructions throughout the term.

Scuba

PE 185 - Dick, James

Special fees apply . An introduction to the underwater world of SCUBA Diving, including classroom, pool-session, and open-water components. Students learn about dive equipment, the science of diving, responsible diving practices, and the environment. Practice time enhances students' safety and comfort and training is completed with a minimum of five open-water dives. Successful completion results in lifetime open-water diver certification from NAUI, www.naui.com . Diving instruction is provided by Nags Head Diving of Manteo, North Carolina.

Sports Psychology

PE 306 - Singleton, Michael J. (Mike)

An examination of both theory and application of sport psychology. Students gain an understanding of the psychological principles and theories that apply to sport and learn how to use this knowledge in an applied setting when working with teams or athletes. Major areas of focus include personality theory, attribution theory, group cohesion, imagery, goal orientation and motivation, goal setting, and imagery.

PE Graduation Requirement Complete

PE XXX - Dittman, D Scott (Scott)

Administrative designation of the completion of the Physical Education requirement for graduation. Credit is awarded by the University Registrar with a composite grade upon completion of all required 100- or 200-level PE skills courses.

The Second Sex: Beauvoir on the Power of Gender

PHIL 235 - Verhage, Florentien

Sixty years after its initial publication, The Second Sex is as eye-opening and relevant as ever. Simone de Beauvoir's masterpiece weaves together history, philosophy, economics, biology, and a host of other disciplines to analyze the Western notion of "woman" and to explore the making and the power of gender and sexuality. The Second Sex is an important philosophical and political document about inequality and enforced "otherness." Referring to the history of philosophy, new developments in existential thought, and drawing on extensive interviews with women, Beauvoir synthesizes research about women's bodies and psyches as well as their historic and economic roles.

Medicine, Research, and Poverty

PHIL 247 - Taylor, Erin P.

This seminar introduces students to central ethical issues in the provision of medical care and the conduct of medical research in the context of poverty. Specific topics include medical research on prisoners and the indigent; ancillary care obligations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); meeting the standard of care in LMICs; access to essential medicines; allocation of scarce medical resources; and compensated donation for organs or tissues.

Physics and Perception of Music

PHYS 102 - Erickson, Jonathan C. (Jon)

Explores physical principles of sound production and music perception. Hands-on investigation is emphasized. Topics include: wave properties and propagation, harmonic series and spectral analysis, tuning temperaments, response of the human ear, auditory processing, room acoustics, audio recording and reproduction technologies, characterization of various instrument families (strings, brass, woodwind, percussion, and voice). Laboratory course with fee.

Supervised Study Abroad: Particle Physics at CERN

PHYS 125 - Mazilu, Irina / Mazilu, Dan A.

This course introduces students to basic theoretical and phenomenological concepts of the structure of matter at the atomic and nuclear level. Students learn about the fundamental particles and their interactions in the context of the groundbreaking experiments that are underway at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research), the world's leader in particle physics research and the host of the Large Hadron Collider. The course includes traditional lectures as well as seminar-type workshops and computational projects, and culminates with a ten-day trip to Switzerland to visit CERN, Geneva, and Bern.

Special Topics in American Politics

POL 295 - Allen, Daniel J. (Dan) / Morel, Lucas E.

A seminar in political science for students at the introductory or intermediate level. Topic, hour, and instructor are announced prior to registration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, POL 295-01: In it to Win It: Planning and Financing Successful Political Campaigns (4). Prerequisite: Preference given to Strategic Communication and Politics majors; instructor consent required. Cycle after cycle, the price tag for competitive races for elective office continues to grow. Tens of millions are committed on both sides of the partisan divide with the hopes of persuading a diminishing group of uncommitted voters. As the influence of big dollar donors and the outside groups they fund are playing a greater role, competition for their attention is fierce among political candidates. In this course, students will learn about the pursuit of financing by being divided into teams tasked with developing a comprehensive campaign strategy to be presented to a panel of "influencers" who will decide which candidate to support financially. (EXP) (SS2) Allen.

Special Topics in American Politics

POL 295 - Bragaw, Stephen G.

A seminar in political science for students at the introductory or intermediate level. Topic, hour, and instructor are announced prior to registration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2016, POL 295-02: Special Topics in American Government: Business, Government, and the International Economy (3). Prerequisite: POL 100 or instructor consent. This course examines the evolution of the relationship between businesses, governments, and the international economy. Emphasis is on how technological innovation has disrupted established relationships, leading to new forms of regulation, law, and competition, as well as how constitutional and legal norms shape political economy policy making. Examples are drawn from financial crises, the politics of globalization, and trade and development, with a particular focus on the post-1980 economy. (SS2) Bragaw.

Special Topics in Global Politics

POL 296 - O'Dell, Wesley B. (Wes)

A seminar in political science for students at the introductory or intermediate level. Topic, hour, and instructor are announced prior to registration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, POL 296-01: Special Topics in Global Politics: International Crises and National Security (4) . Prerequisite: POL 105 or instructor consent. This course examines international crisis behavior through a combination of classroom instruction and participatory National Security Council simulation scenarios. Students study theories of international crisis alongside historical case studies such as the July Crisis of 1914, the Suez Crisis, and the Cuban Missile Crisis, among others, with students assuming a role on a model National Security Council. Using crisis scenarios derived from the Council on Foreign Relations Model Diplomacy series, students research past and present policymakers on the NSC, adopt a policy persona, and work toward the resolution of crises guided by the instructor and guest participants from the policy community. The combination of readings and enactment encourages critical examination of both theories of national security and the vicissitudes of its practice. Multiple outside-of-class meetings are required. (SS2) O'Dell.

Special Topics in Global Politics

POL 296 - Blick, Andrew

A seminar in political science for students at the introductory or intermediate level. Topic, hour, and instructor are announced prior to registration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, POL 296-02: Special Topics in Global Politics: Comparative Constitution-Building (4). This course introduces students to how a constitution is formed. Constitution-building processes have played a critical part in the history of many countries, including the USA, Spain, and Germany. Often they marked an important break with the past, leaving behind authoritarian rule or colonial government. Constitution-building may take place in the wake of traumatic events such as military defeat or revolutionary upheaval. It can have powerful consequences--both good and ill--for the future of the country in which it takes place. Through historical analysis, case studies, and international comparison, students investigate different processes of creating a constitution. (SS2) Blick. Spring 2018 only.

Summer 2017, POL 296-01: Special Topics in Global Politics: South Africa (3). This course provides students with an introductory account of the post-apartheid political landscape in South Africa. The course gives an overview of the political and economic forces that shaped South African society during the colonial period. It examines the Apartheid era, emphasizing the domestic and global politics that led to the rise and fall of the National Party Government, and it examines the system of apartheid and how the transition process structured the post-apartheid political system and societal landscape. The course also considers key questions facing South Africans, from national identity to economic inequality. (SS2) Le Blanc. Summer 2017

Washington Term Program

POL 466 - Connelly, William F., Jr. (Bill)

The Washington Term Program aims to enlarge students' understanding of national politics and governance. Combining the practical experience of a Washington internship with academic study, it affords deeper insight into the processes and problems of government at the national level. A member of the politics faculty is the resident director, supervising students enrolled in this program while they are in Washington, D.C.

Medicine, Research, and Poverty

POV 247 - Taylor, Erin P.

This seminar introduces students to central ethical issues in the provision of medical care and the conduct of medical research in the context of poverty. Specific topics include medical research on prisoners and the indigent; ancillary care obligations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); meeting the standard of care in LMICs; access to essential medicines; allocation of scarce medical resources; and compensated donation for organs or tissues.

Special Topics in Poverty Studies

POV 296 - Pickett, Howard Y.

An intensive, in-depth examination of particular thinkers, approaches, policies or debates in the field of poverty and human capability studies.

Spring 2018, POV 296-01: Special Topics in Poverty Studies: Martin Luther King Jr.: Justice, Love, and Forgiveness (4). Prerequisite: POV 101. This interdisciplinary, community-based seminar takes place at Augusta Correctional Center in Craigsville, VA (approx. 35 miles from campus). a level 3 (out of 6) medium-security state prison. W&L undergraduates attend class with inmates who are pursuing higher education. Participants read and discuss together the writings of Martin Luther King Jr, a great social-justice thinker and practitioner. We ask: What is justice and what does it require from us, individually and collectively? What does love have to do with justice? Does love require forgiveness? Is forgiveness sometimes unjust? What role should non-violence and religion play in the pursuit of justice and love within a pluralistic society? How might one's view of human dignity and community inform that pursuit? Are love and justice ever In conflict? If so, how then should we live? (HU) Pickett.

Seminar in Evolutionary Psychology

PSYC 215 - Whiting, Wythe L., IV

The purpose of this course is to examine evolutionary theory as a means of explaining human behavior. The main premise is that behaviors such as cooperation, aggression, mate selection, and intelligence exist because individuals exhibiting these behaviors were more likely to produce healthy offspring that perpetuated those behaviors (i.e., natural selection). We evaluate the validity of this argument in a number of areas of human behavior and also discuss how culture has shaped our genes. Evolutionary psychology is not an area of psychology, like social psychology or cognitive psychology, but is instead a lens through which all human behavior can be explained. Though it is tempting to engage in "arm chair" application of evolutionary theory to behavior, this is a science course; all arguments must be backed up with data.

Health Neuroscience

PSYC 216 - Schreiber, William B.

This seminar provides an introduction to the scientific study of physical and mental health using research methods in neuroscience. We examine the effects of exercise on the brain (from the cellular/molecular to systems-level perspective), how neuroplasticity contributes to both the etiology and treatment of neurological and psychological conditions. and extensively discuss the effects of stress on the brain. The course features comprehensive readings of popular psychology/neuroscience books, as well as empirical reports and reviews published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. A background in neuroscience is recommended. as well as  additional experience with psychology and/or biology prior to enrollment.

Toys and Playful Learning

PSYC 223 - Fulcher, Megan

This course examines the fundamentals of the development and practice of play, with emphasis on toy play. The course covers major developmental theories of the development of skills through playful learning. Students explore how gender and gendered toys impact children's play, skills, visions of the future, and body image, and how toy play can be used to intervene with childhood developmental issues. Primary source material is examined along with popular media depictions of toy play. Students engage in the creation of skill building which involves contact with parents, teachers, and experts in the field.

Spring-Term Topics in Psychology

PSYC 296 - Scherschel, Heather M.

Topics and prerequisites vary with instructor and term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Spring 2018, PSYC 296-01: Spring Term Topics in Psychology: The Psychology of Self-Control: "Humans in Lexington" (3). This seminar focuses on understanding different theoretical approaches to self-control, critically analyzing the research applying these self-control models to different behavioral domains, and evaluating the effectiveness of self-control interventions based on their theoretical assumptions. Students evaluate and apply the theories through empirical reports and reviews published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and popular-press articles. Students apply what they are learning in class to themselves through a self-directed, behavior-change program, and to the world around them through application assignments. (SS3) Scherschel.

The Pursuit of Happiness

PSYC 300 - Murdock, Karla

Students examine and discuss the meaning and significance of happiness, explore pathways and barriers to happiness from scientific, theoretical, and philosophical perspectives, and engage in a thoughtful and proactive process of self-examination with regard to personal ideals, goals, and mechanisms of happiness. Students become immersed in experiential learning opportunities to sample potential pathways to well-being and contribute to the greater good through community service.

Biblical Job and His Modern Masks

REL 270 - Marks, Richard G.

This course combines study, performance, and creative writing. We study the biblical Book of Job in relation to other wisdom writings in the Hebrew Bible, and then some later Jewish and Christian interpretations. Students write about a theme in the Book of Job and perform a significant passage. Afterwards, we read several modern retellings of the book such as MacLeish's J.B. , Wiesel's Trial of God , Sholem Aleichem's Tevye stories, and the Danish film Adam's Apples . The final student project is a personal and creative retelling of the book in a contemporary setting. Lastly, students perform, with another member of the class, a critical scene from their compositions.

Laboratory Methods in Archaeology

SOAN 211 - Gaylord, Donald A.

Additional special fees may apply. If necessary, some financial aid may be available through departmental funds. This course introduces students to archaeological lab methods through hands-on experience, readings, and fieldtrips. Students process and catalogue archaeological finds ensuring they maintain the archaeological provenience of these materials. Using the scientific method and current theoretical motivations in anthropological archaeology, students learn how to develop and test hypotheses about the site under consideration by analyzing the artifacts they themselves have processed. We visit several archaeology labs in order to experience, first hand, the range of projects and methods currently undertaken by leading archaeologists. Students then use the archaeological data to test their hypotheses and produce a report of their research, which may take the form of a standard archaeological report, an academic poster, or a conference-style presented paper.

Campus Sex in the Digital Age

SOAN 261 - Goluboff, Sascha

This class explores how the cell phone has impacted hooking up and dating at college, with particular attention to Washington and Lee University as a case study. We discuss the development of campus sexual culture in America and the influence of digital technology on student sociality. Students use open-source digital research tools to analyze data they collect on the mobile apps they use to socialize with each other on campus. As a digital humanities project, students work in groups to post their analyses on the class WordPress site.

Exploring Social Networks

SOAN 265 - Eastwood, Jonathan R. (Jon)

This course is an introduction to network analysis. Students learn some of the major network analysis literature in sociology and related fields and develop their skills as network analysts in laboratory sessions. Social science, humanities, business, and public health applications are emphasized.

Lakota Land Culture, Economics and History

SOAN 286 - Guse, Aaron J. (Joseph) / Markowitz, Harvey J.

This class focuses on the cultural, economic, and historical dimensions of the Lakotas' (Titonwan tawapi) ties to their lands as expressed in their pre- and post-reservation lifeways. It includes a 10 day field trip to western South Dakota to visit and meet with people in the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations and the Black Hills.

Special Topics in Anthropology

SOAN 291 - Thomson, Marnie J.

A discussion of a series of topics of anthropological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Seminar: 9/11 & Modern Terrorism

SOAN 367 - Senechal, Roberta H.

Terrorism is a form of collective violence famously illustrated in the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington on September 11, 2001. This course provides an intensive interdisciplinary examination of the origins of the 9/11 attacks and the terrorist organization that launched them. The course also addresses the impact of the attacks and the future prospects of mass violence against civilians, as well as the role of the media in covering (and dramatizing) terrorism. Much of the course focuses on the social divisions and conflicts that lead to terrorism and its increasingly lethal nature over time. Topics include "old terrorism" (as seen in Northern Ireland and Algeria), "new terrorism" (such as that associated with Al Qaeda), the logic of terrorist recruitment, and the nature of and spread of weapons of mass destruction.

Contemporary Spain in Context: (Re)searching Spanish Identity and Culture in the 21st Century

SPAN 214 - Reyes, Antonio

This course examines contemporary social issues in Spain through lectures and interviews with local subjects in Spain. Lectures provide a formal understanding of contemporary Spanish society, while interviews of local subjects provide data for further analysis by the students that may challenge, complement or further develop their understanding of current social issues.

Living on the Edge: Identities in Motion in Argentina and Uruguay

SPAN 216 - Michelson, Seth R.

Conducted in Spanish in Argentina and Uruguay, this course comprises a study of Argentine culture, language, and identity. Students live in Buenos Aires with Spanish-speaking families while pursuing coursework on identity in local, national, and international contexts. What does geography have to do with identity? How might a nation redefine its policies and peoples over time? Where does the line exist between an economic system and its individual constituents? And what insights can art offer into domestic and international conflict? This course engages such questions through the study of Argentine historiography, literature, economics, and art. Coursework is accentuated by visits to sites of cultural importance in Argentina and Uruguay, including museums, banks, literary presses, political centers, meat markets, parks, and tango houses.

Topics in Spanish Literature and Culture

SPAN 296 - Spragins, Elizabeth L. (Liz)

This course offers students the opportunity to further their understanding of the literature and culture of Spain by focusing on a specific literary and/or cultural topic unique to Spain, on a specific cultural moment in Spanish history, or on a region of Spain. Readings. discussions. and assignments occur primarily in Spanish. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

Discover Scotland: History and Culture through Theater

THTR 227 - Brock, Michelle D. (Mikki) / Levy, Jemma A.

Spring Term Abroad. For a small nation of just over 5 million, Scotland looms remarkably large in our historical, cultural, and artistic imagination. This course travels to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and the Highlands to allow students to go beyond the mythologizing and romance to discover Scotland as it has been experienced and performed by the Scottish people. Using Scotland's vibrant and remarkably political theater scene as our jumping-off point, we study this country's history and culture, examining the powerful intersections of myth and reality that shape Scottish identity past and present. We pay particular attention to the dichotomies -- Highland and Lowland; urban and rural; separatist and unionist; poor and rich; Protestant and Catholic, etc. -- that make modern Scotland such a fascinating subject of historical and artistic inquiry.

Special Effects for Theater

THTR 236 - Collins, Owen

In this hands-on, project-based course, students apply the process of iterative design and use critical thinking to provide creative solutions to solve the artistic effects required to tell stories in theater. Starting with textual analysis of given scripts, students develop the parameters required for various effects, figure out a process to create those effects, and make them.

Total Theater

THTR 239 - Mish, Robert W.

A practical study of design, directing, production and acting problems in a specific style of dramatic literature, culminating in a public theatrical production.

The Second Sex: Beauvoir on the Power of Gender

WGSS 235 - Verhage, Florentien

Sixty years after its initial publication, The Second Sex is as eye-opening and relevant as ever. Simone de Beauvoir's masterpiece weaves together history, philosophy, economics, biology, and a host of other disciplines to analyze the Western notion of "woman" and to explore the making and the power of gender and sexuality. The Second Sex is an important philosophical and political document about inequality and enforced "otherness." Referring to the history of philosophy, new developments in existential thought, and drawing on extensive interviews with women, Beauvoir synthesizes research about women's bodies and psyches as well as their historic and economic roles.