Program Requirements

2014 - 2015 Catalog

The Education department has the following degrees:

Education minor

A minor in education requires completion of at least 18 credits, distributed as follows. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine credits that are not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor. Students may not complete both this minor and the minor in education policy.

1. Required: EDUC 200, 201, 302

2. Electives: Two courses totaling at least six credits chosen from among the following: EDUC 305, 340, 343, 345, 353, 356, 365, 369 (unless ECON 234 has been taken), 375, 377; THTR 225; and, when appropriate, EDUC 403

3. Fieldwork: At least two credits chosen from the following: EDUC 210, 303, 306, 341, 344, 346, 354, 357, 366, 376, 378; THTR 226; and, when appropriate, EDUC 401 or POV 102

4. Context: At least one course chosen from among the following: ECON 234 (unless EDUC 369 has been taken), 235, 236, 238; HIST 258, 260; PHIL 242; POL 250; POV 101, 103; PSYC 112, 113, 114, 230, 235, 269; SOAN 202, 228

Certain First-Year Seminars or special-topics courses, when appropriate, may be approved by the Director of Teacher Education, in advance, as cognates for the context requirement.

  1. Required courses:
    • EDUC 200 - Foundations of Education

      Faculty: Ojure, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: At least sophomore standing.

      An introduction to the issues relating to American public education in the 21st century. Students are introduced to information about teaching strategies and school policy upon which future courses can build. Emphasis is given to school efforts to create environments which promote equity and excellence within a multicultural system. Required for teacher licensure in Virginia.

    • EDUC 201 - Practicum: Foundation of Education

      Faculty: Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Corequisite: EDUC 200.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum is designed to provide an experience observing and participating in a primary or secondary classroom. Additionally, a forum is provided for discussion of issues in education such as classroom management, differentiation, standardized curriculum and more. With these topics in mind, students challenge and refine beliefs as they spend time in a classroom. Working closely with a supervising teacher is invaluable to meeting the goals of this course. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 24 hours of fieldwork during the term.

    • EDUC 302 - Teaching the Exceptional Learner

      Faculty: Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite EDUC 200, POV 101, or POV 103; and successful application to Teacher Education or instructor consent.

      This course addresses education for exceptional individuals by examining the key issues surrounding instruction for children and adolescents with disabilities or special talents. Students study the identification, etiology, and incidence of exceptionality. Through case-study review and individual research projects, students investigate the educational, social, and cultural dimensions of life in American society for exceptional individuals. Required for teacher licensure in Virginia.

  2. Electives: Two courses totaling at least six credits chosen from among the following:
    • EDUC 305 - Teaching Elementary Reading

      Faculty: Sigler
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application into Teacher Education program.

      Corequisite: Education 306.

      This course prepares students to teach reading in the elementary classroom. Participants will develop an understanding of the reading process, consider theories of reading instruction, examine current research in reading development and investigate elements of a balanced literacy program. Strategies for teaching word study, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and spelling will be studied for each developmental reading stage. Students will also examine formal and informal diagnostic techniques and instructional procedures for dealing with various types of reading difficulties.

    • EDUC 340 - Elementary Language Arts and Social Studies Methods

      Faculty: Kearney, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application to Teacher Education program.

      This course prepares students to teach language arts and social studies in the elementary classroom. Participants develop an understanding of the theories of language arts and social studies instruction and examine current research in language arts and social studies instruction. Students learn strategies for direct instruction and group learning to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development. Students also learn how to plan and prepare lessons while managing the learning environment of the classroom.

    • EDUC 343 - Elementary Math and Science Methods

      Faculty: Kearney, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application to Teacher Education program.

      Corequisite: EDUC 344.

      This course prepares students to teach mathematics and science in the elementary classroom. Participants develop an understanding of the theories of mathematics and science instruction and examine current research in inquiry-based mathematics and science instruction. Students learn strategies for direct instruction and group learning to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development. Students also learn how to plan and prepare lessons while managing the learning environment of the math and science classroom.

    • EDUC 345 - Elementary and Secondary Vocal Music Methods

      Faculty: Lynch
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and 201 and successful application to Teacher Education or instructor consent.

      An overview of singers' vocal development including analysis of common vocal challenges, study of pedagogical techniques in group settings, evaluation of vocal and choral literature and texts, construction of vocal interviews, and guidelines for performance at the elementary and secondary levels.

    • EDUC 353 - Middle and Secondary Content Area Reading and Writing

      Faculty: Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application to Teacher Education program.

      In this course, students examine research on adolescent literacy and study instructional strategies for secondary content area subjects. Students examine how literacy can be developed through specific strategies in the content area classroom. Specifically, the course highlights methods for incorporating reading and writing across the curriculum through content-based reading and writing activities, questioning and discussion techniques, vocabulary exercises, and research-based study techniques. In addition, students examine ways to integrate the arts across all content areas to foster student comprehension and critical thinking

    • EDUC 356 - Methods for Middle and Secondary Education

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application to Teacher Education program.

      In this course, participants develop an understanding of theories of instruction and examine current research in secondary instruction. Students learn strategies for direct instruction and group learning to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development. Students also learn how to plan and prepare lessons while managing the learning environment of the classroom.

    • EDUC 365 - Methods for Foreign Language

      Faculty: Kuettner
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application to Teacher Education, instructor consent, or participation in the ESOL program.

      This course prepares students to teach foreign language in elementary and secondary classrooms. Participants develop an understanding of theories of foreign-language pedagogy and examine current research in foreign-language instruction. Students learn strategies for direct instruction and group learning to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development. Students also learn how to plan and prepare lessons while managing the learning environment of the classroom.

    • EDUC 369 - Urban Education and Poverty

      Faculty: Ojure, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Spring 2015 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisites: One course chosen from EDUC 200, EDUC 210, 300-level EDUC courses, ECON 236, POV 101, POV 103, or instructor consent.

      Not open to students with credit for ECON 234. In this course, students explore pedagogy, curriculum, and social issues related to urban education by working in schools in the Richmond area for three weeks. Students read about and discuss the broader social and economic forces, particularly poverty, that have shaped urban schools and the ramifications of those forces for school design. The Richmond schools provide the opportunity to observe critical components of teaching and learning in the urban classroom. Housing is provided with alumni during the week. Students return to Lexington for Friday seminars and for the fourth week of the term for seminars and discussion.

    • (unless ECON 234 has been taken)
    • EDUC 375 - Elementary and Secondary Instrumental Music Methods for Woodwinds and Brass

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application to Teacher Education or permission of the instructor.

      This course is designed to teach students sound contemporary methods for instruction in woodwinds and brass in elementary, middle, and secondary schools. It is also designed to determine the wide range of students who possess various levels of ability, from beginners to advanced woodwind and brass students.

    • EDUC 377 - Elementary and Secondary Instrumental Music Methods for Strings and Percussion

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: EDUC 200 and successful application to Teacher Education or permission of the instructor.

      This course is designed to teach students sound contemporary methods for instruction in strings and percussion in elementary, middle, and secondary schools. It is also designed to determine the wide range of students who possess various levels of ability, from beginners to advanced strings and percussion students.

    • THTR 225 - Educational Theater:Creative Strategies for Using Theater in the Pre-Kindergarten-to-High-School Classroom

      FDR: HA
      Faculty: Jew
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      This course introduces students to the major theories, methods and practices in using theater art as an educational tool for children and youths. Students develop and implement lessons plans in their own areas of expertise, and participate in educational outreach for the department's production season. A solid background in the plays and practitioners in educational theater is developed through readings and in-class discussions. Short papers, teaching demonstrations and dramaturgical research are required. Students of all academic disciplines are welcome.

    • and, when appropriate
    • EDUC 403 - Directed Individual Study

      Faculty: Ojure
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: Consent of the Director of Teacher Education.

      Students must have completed at least one course in professional studies and have had relevant field experience. May be completed in the Lexington area. Students investigate current issues in education through research and work in the field and have opportunities to put educational theory into practice in elementary and secondary school settings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

  3. Fieldwork: At least two credits chosen from the following:
    • EDUC 210 - Fieldwork in Education

      Faculty: Sigler, Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1-3


      Prerequisite: Instructor consent.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This course provides students who are not in the teacher-education program an opportunity to observe and assist in elementary and secondary classrooms in the local school systems. It is intended for those students who wish to explore education as a profession or who are interested in post-graduate programs such as Teach for America or Fulbright teaching positions. Students in the teacher-education program should take the practicum courses that correspond to upper level education courses. May be repeated for up to 3 credits total.

    • EDUC 303 - Practicum: The Exceptional Learner

      Faculty: Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program and instructor consent.

      Corequisite: EDUC 302.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 302 by providing students with an opportunity to explore special education in the field through observing and assisting in inclusive classrooms and special classes. Students also study the relationship between general-education and special-education teachers.

    • EDUC 306 - Practicum: Teaching Elementary Reading

      Faculty: Sigler
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum course accompanies Education 305, and provides students with the opportunity to observe and practice reading methods used in elementary education.

    • EDUC 341 - Practicum: Elementary Language Arts and Social Studies Methods

      Faculty: Kearney, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program.

      Corequisite: EDUC 340.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 340. This observation and participation in area schools gives the students the opportunity to carry out instructional techniques and examine language arts and social studies instruction in an authentic environment.

    • EDUC 346 - Practicum: Elementary and Secondary Vocal Music Methods

      Faculty: Lynch
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1-2


      Corequisite: EDUC 345.

      This fieldwork placement permits students to work in the schools with choral groups to observe and practice the instructional techniques covered in EDUC 345. Course work includes non-music observations in public schools and a music project In which students observe and participate as instructional aides. Class sessions focus on techniques for observing and recording classroom behavior, relationships between teaching of music and the planning of music instruction. May be repeated for up to three credits total.

    • EDUC 354 - Practicum: Secondary Content Area Reading and Writing

      Faculty: Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program

      Corequisite: EDUC 353.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 353 and provides students with an opportunity to teach several lessons they have designed. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term.

    • EDUC 357 - Practicum: Methods for Middle and Secondary Education

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program

      Corequisite: EDUC 356.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 356. It provides students with an opportunity to observe and participate in secondary school instruction in an authentic environment. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term.

    • EDUC 366 - Practicum: Methods for Foreign Language

      Faculty: Kuettner
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1-2


      Corequisite: EDUC 365.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 365. It provides students with an opportunity to observe and participate in foreign-language instruction in an authentic environment. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term. May be taken for a second credit if a different placement is completed.

    • EDUC 376 - Practicum in Elementary and Secondary Instrumental Music Methods for Woodwinds and Brass

      Faculty: Staff
      Credits: 1-2


      Corequisite: EDUC 375.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. An introduction to the teacher's role in instructional settings. Includes non-music observations in public schools and a music project in which students observe and participate as instructional aides. Class sessions focus on techniques for observing and recording classroom behavior, relationships between the teaching of reading and the teaching of music, and planning music instruction. Students must complete a placement on both the elementary and the secondary level. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term. May be taken for a second credit if a different placement is completed.

    • EDUC 378 - Practicum in Elementary and Secondary Instrumental Music Methods for Strings and Percussion.

      Faculty: Staff
      Credits: 1-2


      Corequisite: EDUC 377

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. An introduction to the teacher's role in instructional settings. Includes non-music observations in public schools and a music project in which students observe and participate as instructional aides. Class sessions focus on techniques for observing and recording classroom behavior, relationships between the teaching of reading and the teaching of music, and planning music instruction. Students must complete a placement on both the elementary and the secondary level. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term. May be taken for a second credit if a different placement is completed.

    • THTR 226 - Practicum in Theater Methods

      Faculty: Jew
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 1-2


      Prerequisite or corequisite: THTR 225. Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory.

      This individually tailored, hands-on teaching course welcomes students of all academic disciplines. An introduction to the teacher's role in instructional settings. Includes observations in public schools and a theater project in which students observe and participate as instructional aides. This course satisfies the teacher training hours required by the Virginia state teacher's certification in theater. Students must complete a placement on both the elementary level and the middle or secondary level. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term. May be taken for a second credit if a different placement is completed.

    • and, when appropriate,
    • EDUC 401 - Directed Individual Study

      Faculty: Ojure
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Consent of the Director of Teacher Education.

      Students must have completed at least one course in professional studies and have had relevant field experience. May be completed in the Lexington area. Students investigate current issues in education through research and work in the field and have opportunities to put educational theory into practice in elementary and secondary school settings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • POV 102 - Fieldwork in Poverty and Human Capability

      Faculty: Pickett, Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Prerequisite or corequisite: POV 101. Not eligible for POV 102 if POV 103 completed.

      Sustained critical reflection on pivotal issues in poverty studies based on supervised volunteer work, journals, and weekly discussions and papers related to the readings in 101.

  4. Context: At least one course chosen from among the following:
    • ECON 234 - Urban Education: Poverty, Ethnicity and Policy

      Faculty: Diette
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: ECON 101 and instructor consent. Not open to students with credit for EDUC 369.

      Students explore the determinants of education achievement and attainment in urban education through three weeks of fieldwork in schools in the Richmond area (Monday through Thursday each week) and seminar meetings in Lexington. Students observe and work to understand critical components of teaching and learning in the urban classroom. The readings and experience challenge students to consider factors including early childhood development, the role of the family, school finance, teachers, and curriculum. The students then evaluate the current policy proposals for school reform in the United States such as teacher merit pay, charter schools, and student accountability. In addition, students develop and present their own policy proposal for improving public schools. Housing is provided through alumni in Richmond.

    • (unless EDUC 369 has been taken)
    • ECON 235 - The Economics of Social Issues

      Faculty: Goldsmith
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: ECON 101, and POV 101 or 103 during initial registration.

      This seminar is based on readings that set out hypotheses developed by economists and other social scientists regarding the causes and consequences of a wide range of social problems. Evidence examining the validity of these hypotheses is scrutinized and evaluated. The course is writing intensive and interdisciplinary since readings are drawn from a wide variety of fields. Topics discussed include, but are not limited to, poverty, education, health, crime, race, ethnicity, immigration, and fiscal matters.

    • ECON 236 - Economics of Education

      Faculty: Diette
      Planned Offering: Fall or Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: ECON 101 and POV 101 or EDUC 200 during initial registration; then only ECON 101.

      Investigation of the role of education on outcomes for both nations and individuals. Understanding of the factors in the education production function. Emphasis on the challenges of pre-K-12 education in the United States; secondary coverage of postsecondary education. Analysis of the effect of existing policies and potential reforms on the achievement and opportunities available to poor and minority students.

    • ECON 238 - Poverty and Inequality in the United States

      Faculty: Handy
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: Normally, ECON 101 and 102. ECON 101 only for Winter 2015.

      This course takes an economic approach toward investigating recent trends in poverty and inequality in the U.S., focusing on evaluating alternative explanations for who becomes (or remains) poor in this country. Factors considered in this investigation include labor-market trends, educational opportunities, family background, racial discrimination, and neighborhood effects. Aspects of public policy designed to alleviate poverty are discussed, as well as its failures and successes.

    • HIST 258 - History of Women in America, 1870 to the Present

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Senechal
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      A survey of some of the major topics and themes in American women's lives from the mid-19th century to the present, including domestic and family roles, economic contributions, reproductive experience, education, suffrage, and the emergence of the contemporary feminist movement. The influence on women's roles, behavior, and consciousness by the social and economic changes accompanying industrialization and urbanization and by variations in women's experience caused by differences in race, class, and region.

    • HIST 260 - The History of the African-American People since 1877

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: DeLaney
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      An intensive study of the African-American experience from 1877 to the present. Special emphasis is given to the development of black intellectual and cultural traditions, development of urban communities, emergence of the black middle class, black nationalism, the civil rights era, and the persistence of racism in American society.

    • PHIL 242 - Social Inequality and Fair Opportunity

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Bell
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      An exploration of the different range of opportunities available to various social groups, including racial, ethnic and sexual minorities, women, and the poor. Topics include how to define fair equality of opportunity; the social mechanisms that play a role in expanding and limiting opportunity; legal and group-initiated strategies aimed at effecting fair equality of opportunity and the theoretical foundations of these strategies; as well as an analysis of the concepts of equality, merit and citizenship, and their value to individuals and society.

    • POL 250 - Black American Politics

      FDR: SS2
      Faculty: Morel
      Planned Offering: Fall or Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: POL 111 or AFCA 130.

      A study of important black figures in American political thought. The course focuses on the intellectual history of black Americans but also considers contemporary social science and public policies dealing with race in America.

    • POV 101 - Poverty and Human Capability: An Interdisciplinary Introduction

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Pickett, Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political and policy, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty but also considers poverty as a global problem.

      Fall 2014:

      POV 101 FS: Poverty and Human Capability: An Interdisciplinary Introduction (3). First-Year seminar.

    • POV 103 - Poverty and Human Capability: An Interdisciplinary Introduction and Fieldwork

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Pickett, Staff
      Planned Offering: Spring
      Credits: 4


      Students may not take for degree credit both this course and POV 101 and 102. An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects, and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political and policy, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty in the United States but also considers poverty as a global problem. This spring term version of the course integrates service fieldwork into the introductory course taught in the fall and winter and offers the same credit as POV 101 and 102 combined.

    • PSYC 112 - Cognition

      FDR: SC
      Faculty: Johnson, Whiting
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      An introduction to human information processing, including an examination of perception, attention, memory, problem solving, and language.

    • PSYC 113 - Principles of Development

      FDR: SS3
      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      An introduction to the development of individual capacities from conception through the life span. Analysis of thought and behavior at different stages of growth with special emphasis on the period from infancy through adolescence.

    • PSYC 114 - Introduction to Social Psychology

      FDR: SS3
      Faculty: Woodzicka
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      The scientific study of how individuals' feelings, thoughts, and behavior are affected by others. Topics include prejudice, the self, interpersonal attraction, helping, aggression, attitudes, and persuasion.

    • PSYC 230 - Contemporary Issues in Child Development

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: PSYC 113 and instructor consent.

      The specific topic in this course will vary from year to year. However, each involves seminars on current problems or issues related to the development of children. Examples include issues in child and family policy; effect of media on children; and effects of poverty on families. Some topics require students to participate in observation and/or testing of children in addition to classroom work. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • PSYC 235 - Effects of Poverty on Families and Children

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: PSYC 113 or POV 101.

      This course explores the problem of child and family poverty, the issues it raises for psychologists and social policy makers, and the implications that poverty and social policy have for children's development. This class explores how children's perceptions of the world, or their place in it, are affected by economically stressed families.

    • PSYC 269 - Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

      Faculty: Woodzicka
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: PSYC 114 and PSYC 250 (as co-req or pre-req) or instructor consent.

      This course examines cognitive and affective processes involved in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Causes and social implications of prejudice involving various stigmatized groups (e.g., African-Americans, women, homosexuals, people of low socioeconomic status, overweight individuals) are examined. Participants focus on attitudes and behaviors of both perpetrators and targets of prejudice that likely contribute to and result from social inequality.

    • SOAN 202 - Contemporary Social Problems

      FDR: SS4
      Faculty: Eastwood
      Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      A study of the relationship of social problems to the cultural life and social structure of American society. An analysis of the causes, consequences, and possible solutions to selected social problems in American society.

    • SOAN 228 - Race and Ethnic Relations

      FDR: SS4
      Faculty: Novack
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: At least junior standing. Instructor consent required.

      An analysis of minority groups in America. Theories of ethnicity are examined focusing on the relationship between class and ethnicity, and on the possible social and biological significance of racial differences. Attention is also given to prejudice and discrimination, as well as to consideration of minority strategies to bring about change.

Education Policy minor

A minor in education policy requires completion of at least 18 credits, distributed as follows. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine credits that are not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor. Students may not complete both this minor and the minor in education.

1. Required: EDUC 200

2. Quantitative Literacy: One course chosen from INTR 202, MATH 118, PSYC 120

3. Policy and Analysis: One course chosen from ECON 234, ECON 236

4. Political Context: One course chosen from POL 203, POL 232

5. Educational Context: One additional course chosen from the following:

BIOL 165
DANC 235
ECON 231, 232, 235, 237, 238, 250
ENGL 234
HIST 260, 268
INTR 220
PHIL 254
POL 203 (if not used in category 4 above)
POV 101, 103, 295
PSYC 113, 230, 235
SOAN 202, 251, 281, 288

6. Fieldwork: At least two courses comprising at least three credits chosen from the following:

CHEM 175
ECON 234 (if not used in category 3 above)
EDUC 201, 210, 303, 306, 341, 344, 346, 354, 357, 366, 369
PE 301

  1. Required:
    • EDUC 200 - Foundations of Education

      Faculty: Ojure, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: At least sophomore standing.

      An introduction to the issues relating to American public education in the 21st century. Students are introduced to information about teaching strategies and school policy upon which future courses can build. Emphasis is given to school efforts to create environments which promote equity and excellence within a multicultural system. Required for teacher licensure in Virginia.

  2. Quantitative Literacy:
  3. One course chosen from

    • INTR 202 - Applied Statistics

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: INTR 201.

      An examination of the principal applications of statistics in accounting, business, economics, and politics. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis.

    • MATH 118 - Introduction to Statistics

      FDR: SC
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: MATH 101.

      Elementary probability and counting. Mean and variance of discrete and continuous random variables. Central Limit Theorem. Confidence intervals and hypothesis tests concerning parameters of one or two normal populations.

    • PSYC 120 - Quantitative Literacy in the Behavioral Sciences

      FDR: SS3
      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Students learn the basics of collecting, interpreting, and presenting data in the behavioral sciences. Data from a variety of sources, such as questionnaires, psychological tests, and behavioral observations, are considered. Students learn to use and to evaluate critically statistical and graphical summaries of data. They also study techniques of searching the literature and of producing written reports in technical format. Individual projects include oral presentations, creating technical graphics, and publishing on the World Wide Web.

  4. Policy and Analysis:
  5. One course chosen from

    • ECON 234 - Urban Education: Poverty, Ethnicity and Policy

      Faculty: Diette
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: ECON 101 and instructor consent. Not open to students with credit for EDUC 369.

      Students explore the determinants of education achievement and attainment in urban education through three weeks of fieldwork in schools in the Richmond area (Monday through Thursday each week) and seminar meetings in Lexington. Students observe and work to understand critical components of teaching and learning in the urban classroom. The readings and experience challenge students to consider factors including early childhood development, the role of the family, school finance, teachers, and curriculum. The students then evaluate the current policy proposals for school reform in the United States such as teacher merit pay, charter schools, and student accountability. In addition, students develop and present their own policy proposal for improving public schools. Housing is provided through alumni in Richmond.

    • ECON 236 - Economics of Education

      Faculty: Diette
      Planned Offering: Fall or Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: ECON 101 and POV 101 or EDUC 200 during initial registration; then only ECON 101.

      Investigation of the role of education on outcomes for both nations and individuals. Understanding of the factors in the education production function. Emphasis on the challenges of pre-K-12 education in the United States; secondary coverage of postsecondary education. Analysis of the effect of existing policies and potential reforms on the achievement and opportunities available to poor and minority students.

  6. Political Context:
  7. One course chosen from the following:

    • POL 203 - State and Local Government

      FDR: SS2
      Faculty: Richardson
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      An introduction to the structures and functions of United States subnational governments, with particular emphasis on the policy-making process and on the relationships between policy makers and the public. Computer-assisted analysis of survey-research data is included.

    • POL 232 - Public Policy

      FDR: SS2
      Faculty: Harris
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: POL 100.

      Introduction to public policy formation and implementation, decision making in government, the concepts and techniques of policy analysis, and ethical analysis of policy. Policy issues such as education, the environment, and public health are used as illustrations.

  8. Educational Context:
  9. Once additional course chosen from the following:

    • SOAN 288 - Childhood

      Faculty: Goluboff
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      This course explores the experience of childhood cross-culturally. It investigates how different societies conceptualize children, and our readings will progress through representations of the life cycle. Beginning with the topic of conception, the course moves through issues pertaining to the fetus, infants, children, and adolescents. Discussions of socialization, discipline, emotion, education, gender, and sexuality are included and special attention is given to the effects of war, poverty, social inequality, and disease on children and youth.

    • BIOL 165 - Human Biology and Nutrition

      FDR: SL
      Faculty: Hamilton
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
      Credits: 4


      Students in this laboratory based course for non-majors investigate the importance of nutrition in the context of normal human biology and as it relates to poor nutritional choices on the proliferation of a suite of human diseases. Topics covered include diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. In addition to other forms of assessment, students develop modules for kindergarten-to-fifth-grade science units based on content from the lecture and laboratory components of the course.

    • DANC 235 - Head to Toe

      FDR: HA
      Faculty: Davies
      Planned Offering: Spring
      Credits: 4


      The theory and practice of creating a lecture/demonstration-style performance based on the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) for elementary students. This class spends time researching recent scholarly writings on the brain, neural wiring and how pairing movement with traditional educational concepts can help young children to learn better. Students then use these principles to create a lecture/demonstration for local 4th- and 5th-grade students, including meeting and discussing ideas with local principals, setting up performances, creating a concert that ties to Virginia SOLs in English, science or mathematics, making costumes, sets or other production elements, choreographing and performing the material. Students also prepare an evaluation of the production and create literature to leave with the teachers so that the basic principles used to create the performance can be continued if desired.

    • ECON 231 - Economics of Race and Ethnicity

      Faculty: Goldsmith
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: ECON 101.

      The purpose of this writing-intensive and interdisciplinary seminar is to enhance understanding of the link between race and ethnicity and economic outcomes. Participants explore a number of topics through assigned reading and classroom discussion, including: What are race and ethnicity, economic theories of discrimination, social-psychological insight about stereotyping, legacy impacts on social-economic status, affirmative action, wealth disparities between racial/ethnic groups, the role of communities in shaping economic and social well-being, concepts of identity, the connection between skin shade and economic outcomes, the contribution of assimilation and English language proficiency to the economic outcomes of immigrant Latino workers, the racial/ethnic composition of schools and academic achievement. The course fosters the development and use of critical thinking, effective writing, and oral presentation skills.

    • ECON 232 - African-American Human Capital Development: Challenges and Opportunities

      Faculty: Diette
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: ECON 101.

      The course analyzes policies and institutions in the U.S. that influence African-Americans in their development of human capital. Examples of topics explored include early child development, K-12 education, postsecondary education, wealth, job training programs, housing segregation, and access to quality health care.

    • ECON 235 - The Economics of Social Issues

      Faculty: Goldsmith
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: ECON 101, and POV 101 or 103 during initial registration.

      This seminar is based on readings that set out hypotheses developed by economists and other social scientists regarding the causes and consequences of a wide range of social problems. Evidence examining the validity of these hypotheses is scrutinized and evaluated. The course is writing intensive and interdisciplinary since readings are drawn from a wide variety of fields. Topics discussed include, but are not limited to, poverty, education, health, crime, race, ethnicity, immigration, and fiscal matters.

    • ECON 237 - Health Economics

      Faculty: Diette
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: ECON 101.

      An overview of the determinants of health using standard microeconomic models to analyze individual behavior, markets, institutions, and policies that influence health and health care. The primary focus of the course is the United States but also includes comparisons to health systems in other developed countries and very limited coverage of developing countries. Particular emphasis is given to challenges faced by disadvantaged groups. The course includes an optional service-learning component with placements involving health issues and/or health care services in Rockbridge County.

    • ECON 238 - Poverty and Inequality in the United States

      Faculty: Handy
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: Normally, ECON 101 and 102. ECON 101 only for Winter 2015.

      This course takes an economic approach toward investigating recent trends in poverty and inequality in the U.S., focusing on evaluating alternative explanations for who becomes (or remains) poor in this country. Factors considered in this investigation include labor-market trends, educational opportunities, family background, racial discrimination, and neighborhood effects. Aspects of public policy designed to alleviate poverty are discussed, as well as its failures and successes.

    • ECON 250 - Public Finance

      Faculty: Guse
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102.

      Public choices and the public economy. An inquiry into how the references of individuals and groups are translated into public sector economic activity. The nature of public activity and public choice institutions. The question of social balance. The effects of government expenditures and taxes on the economic behavior of individuals and firms.

    • ENGL 234 - Children's Literature

      FDR: HL
      Faculty: Leland
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

      A study of works written in English for children. The course treats major writers, thematic and generic groupings of texts, and children's literature in historical context. Readings may include poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction, and illustrated books, including picture books that dispense with text.

    • HIST 260 - The History of the African-American People since 1877

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: DeLaney
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      An intensive study of the African-American experience from 1877 to the present. Special emphasis is given to the development of black intellectual and cultural traditions, development of urban communities, emergence of the black middle class, black nationalism, the civil rights era, and the persistence of racism in American society.

    • HIST 268 - Building a Suburban Nation: Race, Class, and Politics in Postwar America

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Michelmore
      Credits: 3


      Together, the overdevelopment of the suburbs and the underdevelopment of urban centers have profoundly shaped American culture, politics and society in the post-WWII period. This course examines the origins and consequences of suburbanization after 1945. Topics include the growth of the national state, the origins and consequences of suburbanization, the making of the white middle class, the War on Poverty, welfare and taxpayers "rights" movements, "black power," and how popular culture has engaged with questions about race and class. In the process of understanding the historical roots of contemporary racial and class advantage and disadvantage, this course will shed new light on contemporary public policy dilemmas.

    • PHIL 254 - Philosophy of the Family: Beyond Tradition

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Bell
      Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      This course considers philosophical issues raised by family as a social institution and as a legal institution. Topics addressed include the social and personal purposes served by the institution of family, the nature of relationships between family members, the various forms that family can take, the scope of family privacy or autonomy, and how family obligations, mutual support, and interdependency affect individual members of families.

    • POL 203 - State and Local Government (if not used in category 4 above)

      FDR: SS2
      Faculty: Richardson
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      An introduction to the structures and functions of United States subnational governments, with particular emphasis on the policy-making process and on the relationships between policy makers and the public. Computer-assisted analysis of survey-research data is included.

    • POV 101 - Poverty and Human Capability: An Interdisciplinary Introduction

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Pickett, Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political and policy, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty but also considers poverty as a global problem.

      Fall 2014:

      POV 101 FS: Poverty and Human Capability: An Interdisciplinary Introduction (3). First-Year seminar.

    • POV 103 - Poverty and Human Capability: An Interdisciplinary Introduction and Fieldwork

      FDR: HU
      Faculty: Pickett, Staff
      Planned Offering: Spring
      Credits: 4


      Students may not take for degree credit both this course and POV 101 and 102. An exploration of the nature, scope, causes, effects, and possible remedies for poverty as a social, moral, political and policy, economic, legal, psychological, religious, and biological problem. The course focuses on domestic poverty in the United States but also considers poverty as a global problem. This spring term version of the course integrates service fieldwork into the introductory course taught in the fall and winter and offers the same credit as POV 101 and 102 combined.

    • POV 295 - Child Abuse and Neglect Seminar

      Faculty: Shaughnessy
      Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 2


      Prerequisites: POV 101 and at least junior standing or instructor consent.

      This seminar examines the response of the legal system to issues of child abuse and neglect. Attempts by courts and legislators to define abuse and neglect are reviewed and critiqued. The seminar also explores the legal framework which governs state intervention to protect children from abuse and neglect. Attention is paid to both state and federal law, including the federal constitutional issues which arise in many child abuse and neglect proceedings. Issues relating to the professional responsibilities of lawyers involved in abuse and neglect proceedings are examined.

    • PSYC 113 - Principles of Development

      FDR: SS3
      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      An introduction to the development of individual capacities from conception through the life span. Analysis of thought and behavior at different stages of growth with special emphasis on the period from infancy through adolescence.

    • PSYC 230 - Contemporary Issues in Child Development

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: PSYC 113 and instructor consent.

      The specific topic in this course will vary from year to year. However, each involves seminars on current problems or issues related to the development of children. Examples include issues in child and family policy; effect of media on children; and effects of poverty on families. Some topics require students to participate in observation and/or testing of children in addition to classroom work. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • PSYC 235 - Effects of Poverty on Families and Children

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: PSYC 113 or POV 101.

      This course explores the problem of child and family poverty, the issues it raises for psychologists and social policy makers, and the implications that poverty and social policy have for children's development. This class explores how children's perceptions of the world, or their place in it, are affected by economically stressed families.

    • SOAN 202 - Contemporary Social Problems

      FDR: SS4
      Faculty: Eastwood
      Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years
      Credits: 3


      A study of the relationship of social problems to the cultural life and social structure of American society. An analysis of the causes, consequences, and possible solutions to selected social problems in American society.

    • SOAN 251 - Social Movements

      FDR: SS4
      Faculty: LeBlanc, Eastwood
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: POL 100, 105 or 111 or instructor consent.

      A survey of American social movements, including an evaluation of competing theoretical approaches to the study of social movements and an examination of the strategies, successes, failures, and political and social consequences of the civil rights, labor, student, and women's movements. Close attention is given to factors contributing to the rise and decline of these movements.

    • SOAN 281 - Adolescence Under the Microscope

      FDR: SS4
      Faculty: Novack
      Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      This course focuses on adolescence through the lens of social psychology. Insights from sociology, anthropology, and psychology are employed to explicate the adolescent experience in the United States in contrast to other societies. Topics include: the impact of liminality on adolescent identity in cross-cultural perspective; adolescence as objective reality or cultural fiction; adolescence and peer relations, gender and suicide; and new technologies and virtual adolescence. Each student engages in a research project focusing on adolescence and identity through either interviews or observational techniques. The final project is a group analysis of adolescence as reflected in Facebook.

  10. Fieldwork:
  11. At least two courses comprising at least three credits chosen from the following:

    • CHEM 175 - Teaching Inquiry Science in Local Schools

      Faculty: LaRiviere
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: CHEM 100, 106, or 110.

      This service-learning course teaches the development of hands on laboratory activities to fulfill physical science goals required by the science standards of learning (SOL) for Virginia's public schools. Students create instructional science experiments for chosen age levels to explore and implement activities with school children in Lexington City and Rockbridge County school classrooms. Students visit at least two different classrooms. Primarily a laboratory course.

    • ECON 234 - Urban Education: Poverty, Ethnicity and Policy (if not used in category 3 above)

      Faculty: Diette
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: ECON 101 and instructor consent. Not open to students with credit for EDUC 369.

      Students explore the determinants of education achievement and attainment in urban education through three weeks of fieldwork in schools in the Richmond area (Monday through Thursday each week) and seminar meetings in Lexington. Students observe and work to understand critical components of teaching and learning in the urban classroom. The readings and experience challenge students to consider factors including early childhood development, the role of the family, school finance, teachers, and curriculum. The students then evaluate the current policy proposals for school reform in the United States such as teacher merit pay, charter schools, and student accountability. In addition, students develop and present their own policy proposal for improving public schools. Housing is provided through alumni in Richmond.

    • EDUC 201 - Practicum: Foundation of Education

      Faculty: Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Corequisite: EDUC 200.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum is designed to provide an experience observing and participating in a primary or secondary classroom. Additionally, a forum is provided for discussion of issues in education such as classroom management, differentiation, standardized curriculum and more. With these topics in mind, students challenge and refine beliefs as they spend time in a classroom. Working closely with a supervising teacher is invaluable to meeting the goals of this course. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 24 hours of fieldwork during the term.

    • EDUC 210 - Fieldwork in Education

      Faculty: Sigler, Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1-3


      Prerequisite: Instructor consent.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This course provides students who are not in the teacher-education program an opportunity to observe and assist in elementary and secondary classrooms in the local school systems. It is intended for those students who wish to explore education as a profession or who are interested in post-graduate programs such as Teach for America or Fulbright teaching positions. Students in the teacher-education program should take the practicum courses that correspond to upper level education courses. May be repeated for up to 3 credits total.

    • EDUC 303 - Practicum: The Exceptional Learner

      Faculty: Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program and instructor consent.

      Corequisite: EDUC 302.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 302 by providing students with an opportunity to explore special education in the field through observing and assisting in inclusive classrooms and special classes. Students also study the relationship between general-education and special-education teachers.

    • EDUC 306 - Practicum: Teaching Elementary Reading

      Faculty: Sigler
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum course accompanies Education 305, and provides students with the opportunity to observe and practice reading methods used in elementary education.

    • EDUC 341 - Practicum: Elementary Language Arts and Social Studies Methods

      Faculty: Kearney, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program.

      Corequisite: EDUC 340.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 340. This observation and participation in area schools gives the students the opportunity to carry out instructional techniques and examine language arts and social studies instruction in an authentic environment.

    • EDUC 344 - Practicum: Elementary Math and Science Methods

      Faculty: Kearney, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program.

      Corequisite: EDUC 343.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 343. This observation and participation in area schools gives the students the opportunity to carry out instructional techniques and examine mathematics and science instruction in an authentic environment.

    • EDUC 346 - Practicum: Elementary and Secondary Vocal Music Methods

      Faculty: Lynch
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1-2


      Corequisite: EDUC 345.

      This fieldwork placement permits students to work in the schools with choral groups to observe and practice the instructional techniques covered in EDUC 345. Course work includes non-music observations in public schools and a music project In which students observe and participate as instructional aides. Class sessions focus on techniques for observing and recording classroom behavior, relationships between teaching of music and the planning of music instruction. May be repeated for up to three credits total.

    • EDUC 354 - Practicum: Secondary Content Area Reading and Writing

      Faculty: Ojure
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program

      Corequisite: EDUC 353.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 353 and provides students with an opportunity to teach several lessons they have designed. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term.

    • EDUC 357 - Practicum: Methods for Middle and Secondary Education

      Faculty: Staff
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Successful application into Teacher Education program

      Corequisite: EDUC 356.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 356. It provides students with an opportunity to observe and participate in secondary school instruction in an authentic environment. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term.

    • EDUC 366 - Practicum: Methods for Foreign Language

      Faculty: Kuettner
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1-2


      Corequisite: EDUC 365.

      Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. This practicum reinforces the content of EDUC 365. It provides students with an opportunity to observe and participate in foreign-language instruction in an authentic environment. To meet the course requirements, students must complete 30 hours of fieldwork during the term. May be taken for a second credit if a different placement is completed.

    • EDUC 369 - Urban Education and Poverty

      Faculty: Ojure, Sigler
      Planned Offering: Spring 2015 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisites: One course chosen from EDUC 200, EDUC 210, 300-level EDUC courses, ECON 236, POV 101, POV 103, or instructor consent.

      Not open to students with credit for ECON 234. In this course, students explore pedagogy, curriculum, and social issues related to urban education by working in schools in the Richmond area for three weeks. Students read about and discuss the broader social and economic forces, particularly poverty, that have shaped urban schools and the ramifications of those forces for school design. The Richmond schools provide the opportunity to observe critical components of teaching and learning in the urban classroom. Housing is provided with alumni during the week. Students return to Lexington for Friday seminars and for the fourth week of the term for seminars and discussion.

    • PE 301 - Philosophy and Techniques of Coaching

      Faculty: Cunningham
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 2


      A comprehensive study of principles, philosophy, and techniques of coaching. The class includes practical teaching.