LACS Minor Requirements

Latin American and Caribbean Studies minor

A minor in Latin American and Caribbean studies may complement either a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree, and requires completion of at least 21 credits of LACS and related courses. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine credits that are not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

  1. Introduction: LACS 101
  2. Distribution: 9 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from two of the three areas. Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the program head approves in advance.
    1. Literature: LACS 256 (LIT 256), LIT 259; SPAN 240, 398 and all SPAN numbered between 340 and 359; and, when appropriate, ENGL 262, 350, 351; FREN 344; and LIT 180, 295; PORT 403
    2. Art and Humanities: ARTH 170, 271, 273, 274, 276, 375, 376; HIST 130, 131, 233, 336, 337, 366; SPAN 212; and, when appropriate, FREN 280, HIST 269, 395
    3. Social Sciences: POL 247; SOAN 234; and, when appropriate, ECON 255, 280, 356; POL 215, 381; SOAN 224, 272, 277, 285, 290, 291
  3. Related: 6 credits from the following or from any course not used above in 2. Distribution: BIOL 216; BUS 337; ECON 259; LACS 195, 257, 421, 422, 423; POL 279; SPAN 192, 201, 270, 290, 292, 392; and when appropriate, BUS 305, 335, 390; DANC 215; ECON 288; INTR 296; SOAN 286, SPAN 295
  4. Capstone experience (typically after completion of other program courses): LACS 396

Students must complete the Foundation and Distribution (FL) language requirement in Spanish, French or Portuguese and students are also strongly encouraged to pursue advanced coursework in one or more of the appropriate languages. Students should also take advantage of opportunities that will offer firsthand knowledge of the target culture(s) through formal study abroad, internships, or individual research. Various departments, for example, periodically offer study abroad programs in Latin America, including Costa Rica, Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil. In addition to W&L and independent study abroad opportunities, the program also facilitates internship placement information.

  1. Introduction:
    • LACS 101 - Introduction to Latin American and Caribbean Studies

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall
      Credits: 3


      A multidisciplinary, introductory course designed to familiarize students with the pertinent issues that determine or affect the concept of identity in Latin American and Caribbean societies through a study of their geography, history, politics, economics, literature, and culture. The purpose of the course is to provide a framework or overview to enhance understanding in the students' future courses in particular disciplines and specific areas of Latin American and Caribbean study.

  2. Distribution:
  3. 9 credits selected from the following, with at least one course from two of the three areas.

    • The following may count towards the total count of 9 credits:

      Additional courses may be used when the topic is relevant and the program head approves in advance.

      • LACS 195 - Special Topics in Latin American and Caribbean Studies

        FDR: FDR designation varies with topic, as approved in advance
        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
        Credits: 3


        A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme relevant to the overall understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean region, such as Hispanic Feminisms, the Indigenous Americas, or Shifting Borders, among others. As an introductory seminar, topics are selected with the purpose in mind to present the student with a broad, regional view within the scope of a restricted focus or medium.

      • LACS 257 - Multiculturalism in Latin Americ The Case of Brazil

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Offered in Spring when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
        Credits: 4


        This seminar studies Brazil as an example of a multicultural society. Students examine the meaning of multiculturalism and related concepts of identity, heterogeneity, and Eurocentrism, not only in regard to the Brazilian context, but also, comparatively, to that of US culture. The course focuses on the social dynamics that have engaged Brazilians of different backgrounds, marked by differences of gender, ethnicity, and class, and on how multiculturalism and the ensuing conflicts have continuously shaped and reshaped individual subjectivities and national identity. Some of the key issues to be addressed in class are: Brazil's ethnic formation; myths of national identity; class and racial relations; and women in Brazilian society. Readings for the class include novels, short stories, poetry, and testimonial/diary

      • LACS 421 - Interdisciplinary Research

        Credits: 1
        Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
        Credits: 1


        Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor.

        Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.

      • LACS 422 - Interdisciplinary Research

        Credits: 2
        Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
        Credits: 2


        Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor.

        Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.

      • LACS 423 - Interdisciplinary Research

        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
        Credits: 3


        Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor.

        Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.

      • Literature:
        • LACS 256 - Trans-American Identity: Images from the Americas

          FDR: HL
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

          Counts toward the literature distribution requirement for the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Program. A multi-genre survey of representative literary works from the Americas, defined as those regions that encompass Latin American and Caribbean cultures. In particular the course uses an interdisciplinary approach to show how exemplary artists from the region have crafted images to interpret and represent their American reality. Selected narrative, film, and poetic works by Spanish-American (Neruda, Garcia Marquez, Rulfo, and Carpentier), Francophone (Danticat), Lusophone (Amado), and Anglophone authors (Walcott, Brathwaite, and Naipaul), among others.

        • LIT 256 - Trans-American Identity:Images from the Americas

          FDR: HL
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

          Counts toward the literature distribution requirement for the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Program. A multi-genre survey of representative literary works from the Americas, defined as those regions that encompass Latin American and Caribbean cultures. In particular the course uses an interdisciplinary approach to show how exemplary artists from the region have crafted images to interpret and represent their American reality. Selected narrative, film, and poetic works by Spanish-American (Neruda, Garcia Marquez, Rulfo, and Carpentier), Francophone (Danticat), Lusophone (Amado), and Anglophone authors (Walcott, Brathwaite, and Naipaul), among others.

        • LIT 259 - The French Caribbean Novel

          FDR: HL
          Credits: 3
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

          A stylistic and thematic study of identity acquisition through exile, marginalization, struggle, reintegration and cultural blending or any other sociologically significant phenomenon reflected in the literary works of the most important post-colonial French West Indian authors. Spawned largely by Aimé Césaire's book-length poem, Notebook of a Return to My Native Land , French Caribbean novels have proliferated since the end of World War II. After taking a brief look first at this seminal poem, the course then focuses analytically on novels written by authors such as Haitian Jacques Roumain, Guadeloupeans Simone Schwarz-Bart and Maryse Condé, and Martinicans Joseph Zobel, Raphaël Confiant, and Édouard Glissant. Several films based on, or pertaining to, Césaire's poem and to certain novels are also viewed.

        • SPAN 240 - Introducción a la literatura hispanoamericana

          FDR: HL
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisite: SPAN 162 or 164 or equivalent.

          Spanish-American literary masterpieces from colonial times through the present. Readings and discussions are primarily in Spanish.

        • SPAN 398 - Spanish-American Seminar

          FDR: HL
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisites:SPAN 240 and SPAN 275.

          A seminar focusing on a single period, genre, motif, or writer. Recent topics have included "Spanish American Women Writers: From America into the 21st Century," "20th Century Latin America Theater," and "Past, Memory, and Identity in Contemporary Argentina's Cultural Products." May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        • and all SPAN numbered between 340 and 359
        • And, when appropriate:
          • ENGL 262 - Literature, Race, and Ethnicity

            FDR: HL
            Credits: 3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring
            Planned Offering: Winter
            Credits: 3 in fall, winter; 4 in spring


            Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

            A course that uses ethnicity, race, and culture to develop readings of literature. Politics and history play a large role in this critical approach; students should be prepared to explore their own ethnic awareness as it intersects with other, often conflicting, perspectives. Focus will vary with the professor's interests and expertise, but may include one or more literatures of the English-speaking world: Chicano and Latino, Native American, African-American, Asian-American, Caribbean, African, sub-continental (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka), and others.

          • ENGL 350 - Postcolonial Literature

            FDR: HL
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Fall 2015
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisites: ENGL 299.

            A study of the finest writers of postcolonial poetry, drama, and fiction in English. The course examines themes and techniques in a historical context, asking what "postcolonial" means to writers of countries formerly colonized by the British. Topics include colonization and decolonization; writing in the colonizer's language; questions of universality; hybridity, exile, and migrancy; the relationship of postcolonial to postmodern; Orientalism; censorship; and the role of post-imperial Britain in the publication, distribution, and consumption of postcolonial literature.

          • ENGL 351 - World Fiction in English

            FDR: HL
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Fall 2016 and every third year
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisites: ENGL 299.

            Topics in narrative fiction written in English by writers from nations formerly colonized by the British. Readings include novels and short stories originally written in English. Emphasis on techniques of traditional and experimental fiction, subgenres of the novel, international influences, and historical contexts.

          • FREN 344 - La Francophonie

            FDR: HL
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Winter
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisite: Three courses at the 200 level.

            An analysis of styles, genres, and themes in relation to particular cultural contexts, as represented in literary works written in French by authors from countries other than France. Of particular interest is French language literature from Africa, the Caribbean, and Canada. May be repeated for degree credit if the topic is different.

          • LIT 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar

            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Offered occasionally. Each first-year seminar topic is approved by the Dean of The College and the Committee on Courses and Degrees. Applicability to FDRs and other requirements varies
            Credits: 3


            First-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing.

            .

          • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation

            FDR: HL
            Credits: 3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
            Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
            Credits: 3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring


            Prerequisites: Completion of FW requirement.

            A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

          • PORT 403 - Directed Individual Study

            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisites: Two terms of Portuguese language or equivalent and consent of the department head. Taught in Portuguese.

            The nature and content of the course is determined by the students' needs and by an evaluation of previous work. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      • Art and Humanities:
        • ARTH 170 - Arts of Meso- and South America

          FDR: HA
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years
          Credits: 3


          Survey of the art and architecture of Meso- and South before the arrival of the Europeans, with a focus on indigenous civilizations including the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca. Art is contextualized in terms of religious, social, political, and economic developments in each region under discussion. The class includes a trip to Dumbarton Oakes in Washington, DC.

        • ARTH 271 - Arts of Colonial Latin America

          FDR: HA
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Winter
          Credits: 3


          A survey of the art and architecture of Latin America from the 16th through early-18th centuries, this course begins with an exploration of the art of Aztec and Inca before the arrival of Europeans. Classes then explore the cultural convergence that resulted from the conquest in the 16th century, focusing on the role of indigenous artists and traditions in the formation of early colonial culture. Later lectures consider the rise of nationalism and its effect on the arts.

        • ARTH 273 - Arts of Modern Latin America

          FDR: HA
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Not offered in 2012-2013
          Credits: 3


          This lecture course surveys the art and architecture of Latin America from circa 1900 to the present. Students explore the relationship between the arts in Europe and Latin America, trace the development of modern art in Latin America, and consider topics such as the rise of modernismo in Latin America, art in service of nationalism, indigenismo, and the growing Chicano movement in the United States. Among the artists covered are Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, Tarsila do Amaral, Joaquin Torres-Garcia, Wilfredo Lam, Lygia Clark, and Francisco Botero.

        • ARTH 274 - Art and Revolution: Mexican Muralism

          FDR: HA
          Credits: 4
          Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and alternate years
          Credits: 4


          This lecture course surveys public monumental art produced by Mexican artists Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros in Mexico and the United States from 1910 to the 1970s. These artists used art to promote the social ideals of the Mexican Revolution (1911-1920). Through this muralist movement, they attempted to build a new national consciousness by celebrating the cultural heritage of the Mexican people. Quickly, the muralists and their patrons came into conflict with one another concerning how to best achieve their utopian goal of equality for all Mexicans. This course examines the various ideologies of the Mexican muralists and considers reactions to muralism by other artists as well as the public. The class also examines the impact of muralism throughout Latin America and the United States.

        • ARTH 276 - Chicano Art and Muralism: From the Street to the (Staniar) Gallery

          FDR: HA
          Credits: 4
          Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and every third year
          Credits: 4


          Open to all students.

          This class examines the process by which Chicano/a artists have garnered public attention and respect, and have taken their artworks from the peripheries of the art world to more traditional museum and gallery spaces. Using the Great Wall of Los Angeles as a connecting thread, this class considers the broad theme of identity creation and transformation as expressed by Chicano/a artists from the 1970s to the present.

        • ARTH 375 - Tropical Baroque: The Arts of Colonial Latin America

          FDR: HA
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Not yet scheduled
          Credits: 3


          A seminar devoted to the Renaissance and Baroque art and architecture of Colonial Latin America (1492-1820), including New Spain, the Andean region, the Caribbean, and Brazil. Students learn about the people and societies who produced and used this art and architecture and who came from a wide spectrum of cultural backgrounds.

        • ARTH 376 - Visual Culture in the Hispanic World, c. 1500-1700

          FDR: HA
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years
          Credits: 3


          The 17th-century Golden Age was a period of unparalleled artistic achievement in the Hispanic world. This seminar investigates painting, sculpture and architecture of Spain and the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru from ca.1500 to the death of the last Spanish Habsburg king in 1700. Artists highlighted in this course include Titian, Juan de Herrera, El Greco, Velázquez, Guaman Poma, Miguel de Santiago, and Goya.

        • HIST 130 - Latin Americ Mayas to Independence

          FDR: HU
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Fall
          Credits: 3


          An introduction to the "Indian" and Iberian people active from Florida to California through Central and South America between 1450 and 1750.

        • HIST 131 - Modern Latin Americ Túpak Katari to Tupac Shakur

          FDR: HU
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Winter
          Credits: 3


          A survey of Latin America from the 1781 anticolonial rebellion led by indigenous insurgent Túpak Katari to a globalized present in which Latin American youth listen to Tupac Shakur yet know little of his namesake. Lectures are organized thematically (culture, society, economics, and politics) and chronologically, surveying the historical formation of people and nations in Latin America. Individual countries (especially Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru) provide examples of how local and transnational forces have shaped the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of North and South America and the Caribbean, and the cultural distinctions and ethnic diversity that characterize a region too often misperceived as homogeneous.

        • HIST 233 - U.S.-Latin American Relations from 1825 to Present

          FDR: HU
          Credits: 3
          Credits: 3


          Examines the historical interaction between Latin America and the United States from Spanish American Independence in 1825 to the present. Explores the political, social, cultural, economic, and ecological dimensions of this relationship, focusing on such key themes as imperialism, development, military-state relations, the environment, the war on drugs, science and technology, and human rights.

        • HIST 337 - Seminar: Revolutions in Latin America

          FDR: HU
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Winter 2015
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

          Detailed analysis of 20th-century revolutionary movements in Latin America. Examines historical power struggles, social reforms, and major political changes, with in-depth exploration of Mexico, Bolivia, Cuba, Peru, Chile, and Nicaragua. Explores the social movements and ideologies of under-represented historical actors, such as peasants, guerrillas, artists, workers, women, students, and indigenous people.

        • HIST 366 - Seminar: Slavery in the Americas

          FDR: HU
          Credits: 3
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

          An intensive examination of slavery, abolition movements and emancipation in North America, the Caribbean and Latin America. Emphasis is on the use of primary sources and class discussion of assigned readings.

        • SPAN 212 - Spanish-American Civilization and Culture

          FDR: HU
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
          Credits: 3


          Prerequisite: SPAN 162, 164 or equivalent.

          A survey of significant developments in Spanish-American civilizations. The course addresses Spanish-American heritage and the present-day cultural patterns formed by its legacies. Readings, discussions and papers primarily in Spanish for further development of communication skills.

        • And, when appropriate:
          • FREN 280 - Civilisation et culture francophones

            FDR: HU
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Fall
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisites: FREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent.

            A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization in francophone countries. Topics may include: contemporary Africa, pre-colonial Africa, West Indian history and culture, and Canadian contemporary issues. Readings, discussion and papers in French further development of communication skills.

          • HIST 269 - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History

            FDR: HU
            Credits: 3 in fall or winter; 4 in spring
            Credits: 3 in fall or winter; 4 in spring


            A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

            Fall 2014 topics:

            HIST 269 The American Century: U.S. History, 1945 to the Present (3). This course explores the history of the United States after World War II -- a period sometimes referred to as the "American Century." Major topics include the Bomb, the rise and fall of American liberalism, the Cold War at home and abroad, suburbanization and the consumer culture, race and civil rights, feminism, anti-feminism, the gay and lesbian liberation movement, Vietnam and foreign policy, the rise of conservatism and neoliberalism, and the challenges of globalization. (HU) Michelmore.

            HIST 269B: Afro-Latin America (3). This class examines the intrinsic role that African peoples have played in the historical formation of the geographic and cultural area known as Latin America. We survey the history of African descendant people in the Americas, from the forced migration of the Atlantic slave trade to the Haitian Revolution; from the sugar plantation to the city street; from Brazilian Samba in the 1920s to the emergence of salsa music in Spanish Harlem in the 1970s. Topics include: slavery, the Haitian Revolution and its legacy, debates on "racial democracy," and the relationship between gender, race, and empire. (HU) Gildner.

          • HIST 395 - Advanced Seminar

            FDR: HU
            Credits: 3
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, or 15 credits in history, or consent of the instructor. Prerequisites may vary by topic.

            A seminar offered from time to time depending on student interest and staff availability, in a selected topic or problem in history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

            Fall 2014 topic:

            HIST 395-01: Advanced Seminar: Art and Science from Leonardo Until Today. (3). Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, or 15 credits in history, or consent of the instructor. Art and science are commonly assumed to be two distinct parts of our culture, requiring different talents, skills and even temperaments, and often taught in separate institutions. This distinction, however, has not always been so clear. In this seminar, we explore common denominators in art and science from Leonardo until today, focusing on the manifold ways in which science has been made part of art and art of science. We single out the Romantic Movement, and highlight great names in the holistic practice of art and science such as Coleridge, Goethe, Alexander von Humboldt, and Ernst Haeckel. Moreover, we address how increasingly possible commonalities in artistic and scientific creativity have been discussed in terms of perception, representation, and the science of the brain. (HU) Rupke.

      • Social Sciences:
        • POL 247 - Latin American Politics

          FDR: SS2
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years
          Credits: 3


          This course focuses on Latin American politics during the 20th and 21st centuries. Major topics include: democracy and authoritarianism; representation and power; populism, corporatism, socialism, and communism; and questions of poverty, inequality, and economic growth. The course places particular emphasis on the Cuban and Mexican Revolutions, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, and Peru. In addition, the course examines political and economic relations between the United States and Latin America.

        • SOAN 234 - Nations and Nationalism

          FDR: SS4
          Credits: 3
          Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years
          Credits: 3


          This course examines the rise and global spread of national identity over the last five centuries by considering cases from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas and using these to test major theories of nationalism from history and the social sciences. Major questions considered include the following: What, if any, are the empirically identifiable relationships between national identity and other major dimensions of "modernization," such as the rise of the modern state and industrial capitalism? Is nationalism a cause, consequence, or victim of "globalization"? Can we construct a theory of the spread of national identity that not only makes sense of macro-level patterns but also articulates clear "microfoundations" and identifiable causal mechanisms?

        • And, when appropriate:
          • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Winter
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisite: ECON 101. Economics and environmental studies majors/minors will have priority during the initial registration.

            The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.

          • ECON 280 - Development Economics

            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Fall or Winter
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102.

            A survey of the major issues of development economics. Economic structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited economic growth. Economic goals and policy alternatives. Role of developed countries in the development of poor countries. Selected case studies.

          • ECON 356 - Economics of the Environment in Developing Countries

            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Winter
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102, and either ECON 255 or 280.

            This course focuses on the unique characteristics of the relationship between the environment and the economy in developing nations. Differences in economic structure, political structure, culture, social organization and ecosystem dynamics are emphasized as alternative policies for environmental and resource management are analyzed.

          • POL 215 - International Development

            FDR: SS2
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Fall or Winter
            Credits: 3


            A study of international development and human capability, with a focus on Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The course analyzes theories to explain development successes and failures, with a focus on the structures, institutions, and actors that shape human societies and social change. Key questions include measuring economic growth and poverty, discussing the roles of states and markets in development, and examining the role of industrialized countries in reducing global poverty. The course explores links between politics and other social sciences and humanities.

          • POL 381 - Seminar in International Political Economy

            FDR: SS2
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisite: ECON 102 or POL 105, or instructor consent. Meets the global politics field requirement in the politics major.

            This course provides an intermediate-level introduction to the major actors, questions, and theories in the field of international political economy (IPE). Course participants discuss political and economic interactions in the areas of international trade, fiscal and monetary policy, and exchange rates; discuss globalization in historical and contemporary perspectives; and examine the international politics of the major intergovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, states, and other institutional actors in the global economy.

          • SOAN 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities

            FDR: HU
            Credits: 3
            Credits: 3


            Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community's understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non-Indians hold regarding the environment.

          • SOAN 272 - Social Revolutions

            FDR: SS4
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014
            Credits: 3


            Prerequisite: SOAN 101, 102, or instructor consent.

            This seminar provides an in depth exploration of a variety of social revolutions. The overarching goal of the course is to discern whether or not a single "theory of revolutions" can be constructed. Are there common patterns to be observed in (and common causes behind) events as separated by time, place, and ideology as the 17th-century "Glorious Revolution" in England, the French Revolution, Latin American revolutions (including the Wars of Independence and the Mexican Revolution), the Russian Revolution, and more recent events such as the revolution that brought the current regime in Iran to power? To this end, students read and discuss a variety of such theories that have been put forward by sociologists, historians, and political scientists and then consider case studies of the aforementioned social revolutions in order to scrutinize these theories.

          • SOAN 277 - Seminar in Medical Anthropology

            FDR: SS4
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Winter
            Credits: 3


            Despite radical differences in theory and procedure, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases are human cultural universals. This seminar first examines the beliefs and practices that comprise the medical systems found among a wide variety of non-western peoples. We then investigates the responses of a number of non-western communities to the introduction of western, biomedical practices. We finish by considering such ethical issues as whether or not non-western peoples who supply western doctors and pharmacologists with knowledge of curing agents should be accorded intellectual property rights over this information; in what situations, if any, should western medical personnel impose biomedical treatments on populations; and should anthropologists make use of indigenous peoples as medical trial subjects as was allegedly done by Napoleon Chagnon.

          • SOAN 285 - Introduction to American Indian Religions

            FDR: HU
            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Fall
            Credits: 3


            This class introduces students to some of the dominant themes, values, beliefs, and practices found among the religions of North America's Indian peoples. The first part of the course explores the importance of sacred power, landscape, and community in traditional Indian spiritualities and rituals. It then examines some of the changes that have occurred in these traditions as a result of western expansion and dominance from the 18th through early 20th centuries. Lastly, the course considers some of the issues and problems confronting contemporary American Indian religions.

          • SOAN 290 - Special Topics in Sociology

            Credits: 3 in Fall or Winter, 4 in Spring
            Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
            Credits: 3 in Fall or Winter, 4 in Spring


            A discussion of a series of topics of sociological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

            Fall 2014 topic:

            SOAN 290: Economic Anthropology (3). This course presents a cross-cultural survey of economic practices throughout time and around the world. Using classic and contemporary anthropological studies, we seek to understand how people have organized production, exchange, and consumption, and how these processes articulate with community dynamics such as religious beliefs, ethical codes, social networks, and gender roles. With case studies ranging from prehistoric foragers to contemporary cell phone users, we investigate culturally diverse and socially embedded understandings of commodities, gifts, property, success, and wealth. Bell.
             

          • SOAN 291 - Special Topics in Anthropology

            Credits: 3
            Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit
            Credits: 3


            A discussion of a series of topics of anthropological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

  4. Related:
  5.  6 credits from the following or from any course not used above in 2. Distribution:

    • BIOL 216 - Tropical Ecology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring, when departmental resources permit
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113, instructor consent, and approval of the International Education Committee.

      Course participants visit sites of biological interest in the neotropics. The specific sites vary from year to year, but may include rain forest, high altitude forest, and/or the Galapagos Islands. Students gain firsthand experience with plant and animal communities that have distinctive scientific and historical importance, while learning about ecological and evolutionary processes responsible for patterns of biological diversity in the tropics. Laboratory course.

    • BUS 337 - Economic Globalization and Multinational Corporations

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: At least junior standing. Preference to BSADM or JOURF (JMCB) majors during first round of registration.

      This course focuses on the historical and present effects and issues of economic globalization, and the role of multinational corporations in a global economy. Topics covered may include: production, supply chain, technology, trade, finance, natural environment, labor, development, poverty and inequality, privatization of utilities, immigration, and state sovereignty. Emphasis is on understanding the costs and benefits of economic globalization and the role business plays in contributing to these outcomes.

    • ECON 259 - Supervised Study Abroad: The Environment and Economic Development in Amazonas

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ENV 110.

      Spring Term Abroad course. Amazonas is a huge Brazilian state of 1.5 million sq. kilometers which retains 94 percent of its original forest cover. This course examines the importance of the forest for economic development in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and how policies can be develop to promote both environmental protection and an increase in the quality life in both the urban and rural areas of Amazonas. The learning objectives of this course integrate those of the economics and environmental studies majors. Students are asked to use economic tools in an interdisciplinary context to understand the relationships among economic behavior, ecosystems and policy choices. Writing assignments focus on these relationships and look towards the development of executive summary writing skills.

    • LACS 195 - Special Topics in Latin American and Caribbean Studies

      FDR: FDR designation varies with topic, as approved in advance
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
      Credits: 3


      A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a singular theme relevant to the overall understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean region, such as Hispanic Feminisms, the Indigenous Americas, or Shifting Borders, among others. As an introductory seminar, topics are selected with the purpose in mind to present the student with a broad, regional view within the scope of a restricted focus or medium.

    • LACS 257 - Multiculturalism in Latin Americ The Case of Brazil

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Offered in Spring when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
      Credits: 4


      This seminar studies Brazil as an example of a multicultural society. Students examine the meaning of multiculturalism and related concepts of identity, heterogeneity, and Eurocentrism, not only in regard to the Brazilian context, but also, comparatively, to that of US culture. The course focuses on the social dynamics that have engaged Brazilians of different backgrounds, marked by differences of gender, ethnicity, and class, and on how multiculturalism and the ensuing conflicts have continuously shaped and reshaped individual subjectivities and national identity. Some of the key issues to be addressed in class are: Brazil's ethnic formation; myths of national identity; class and racial relations; and women in Brazilian society. Readings for the class include novels, short stories, poetry, and testimonial/diary

    • LACS 421 - Interdisciplinary Research

      Credits: 1
      Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor.

      Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.

    • LACS 422 - Interdisciplinary Research

      Credits: 2
      Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
      Credits: 2


      Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor.

      Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.

    • LACS 423 - Interdisciplinary Research

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Offered in fall or winter when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, and consent of the instructor.

      Independent research into a topic centered within Latin America or the Caribbean, directed by two or more faculty representing at least two disciplines. Students are expected to share their work with the public through a public presentation.

    • POL 279 - Comparative Political Analysis

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring
      Credits: 4


      This course provides students with an accelerated introduction to the conduct of comparative political analysis. Students develop complementary expertise under a unifying theme, working together with the faculty member and fellow students to write a collective product based on individual and group research. Students gain practice with the comparative method, hypothesis formation and testing, historical-institutional analysis, theory building, and scholarly critique. Students define case studies for comparative examination in conjunction with a team of peers, with each encouraged to study historical moments of their choosing, in consultation with faculty.

    • SPAN 192 - Practical Applications of the Spanish Language

      Credits: 1
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 1


      Prerequisite: 100-level Spanish course or the equivalent and instructor consent.

      Introduction to specialized professional vocabularies. Participants apply learning through service work in the Rockbridge community for at least one hour per week. May be repeated with instructor consent for a maximum of two degree credits.

    • SPAN 201 - Supervised Study Abroad: Costa Rica

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: SPAN 162, 164, or equivalent and instructor consent.

      Spring Term Abroad course. Direct exposure to the language, people, and culture of Costa Rica. Designed to improve grammar and vocabulary of the advanced student through intensive training in Spanish with special emphasis on oral proficiency. The program also includes a home-stay with a Costa Rican family, excursions to local and national sites of interest, cultural activities, and a service-learning component at the local elementary school, hospital, law and accounting firms, or other community agencies.

    • SPAN 270 - The Contemporary Latin American Press: Journalistic Writing & Analysis

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisites: Three credits from any 200 level Spanish course or instructor consent.

      The public space in Latin America is a complex site where ideological negotiations and social changes constantly take place. Researchers and journalists have compared the archives of the press produced by different countries to grasp the most recent dynamics in the region. Thanks to the simultaneity and globalization provided by the Internet, people can capture the pulse of the planet from home and in real time. This phenomenon can be described as the institutionalization of the global village. This course aims to take advantage of the epistemologies of global communication created by new technologies in order to feel the pulse of Latin America as portrayed by the local press. This is an advanced course in composition in which students improve their writing skills and acquire tools to understand contemporary Latin American politics, economy. and society.

    • SPAN 290 - Topics in Latin American Culture and Literature

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring
      Credits: 4


      Prerequisite: May vary with topic.

      This course offers students the opportunity to further their knowledge of the culture and literature of a specific Latin American country, and their awareness of Latin America in general, through the study of special cultural and literary topics. Readings, discussions, and assignments occur primarily in Spanish. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • SPAN 292 - Tutorial in Foreign Language Teaching, Translation, and Interpretation

      Credits: 2
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 2


      Prerequisite: SPAN 162 or 164 or equivalent and instructor consent.

      Preparation for and participation in teaching, translation, and interpretation in the Rockbridge community. Participants oversee teacher training workshops, complete formal translations, and execute live interpretations in the area. The service-learning component requires at least two hours per week in the community. May be repeated once with instructor consent for a maximum of four credits toward degree requirements.

    • SPAN 392 - Spanish Language Theory and Practice

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: SPAN 275 and three credits at the 200 level.

      A topics course that approaches language study through theories of language use and meaning, as well as their practical application through extensive writing exercises. Topics may include translation theory, analysis of theoretical approaches to language study, and advanced grammar. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      Fall 2014 topic:

      SPAN 392: Spanish Language Theory and Practice: Planning and Use in the Spanish Context (3). Prerequisite: SPAN 275 and three credits at the 200 level. This course explores the processes involved in the standardization of a language, in particular the Spanish language, as a social and political construct. At the same time, the course analyzes areas of standard language that are problematic for non-native speakers of Spanish. Reyes

    • And, when appropriate,
      • BUS 305 - Seminar in International Business

        Credits: 3
        Credits: 3


        Prerequisite: Preference to BSADM or JOURF (JMCB) majors during the first round of registration.

        Offered from time to time when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

      • BUS 335 - Ethics of Globalization

        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Fall or Winter
        Credits: 3


        Prerequisite: At least junior standing.

        This seminar examines a number of ethical issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization. Though globalization is not new, recent business, technological, and policy developments have made the world more integrated and interdependent than ever before. Increasing economic, cultural, and political interconnections have created a host of new questions about how to conceive of the moral rights and responsibilities of individuals, multi-national corporations, nation-states, and global institutions within this new global framework. This course identifies and clarifies some of these questions, and considers how they have been addressed from a variety of different disciplinary perspectives. Questions concerning the ethics of globalization are approached through an analysis of a few specific topics, such as immigration, humanitarian intervention, and global poverty and inequality. Because the issues raised by the phenomenon of globalization cross disciplinary boundaries, readings are drawn from a wide variety of fields, including philosophy, business, economics, political science, and anthropology.

      • BUS 390 - Supervised Study Abroad

        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring (when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit)
        Credits: 4


        Prerequisites: Instructor consent, other prerequisites as specified by the instructor, and approval of the International Education Committee.

        These upper-level courses cover topics of current interest in business administration for which international travel provides a unique opportunity for enhancing understanding. Emphasis changes from year to year and is announced well in advance of registration.

      • DANC 215 - World Dance Technique

        FDR: HA
        Credits: 2
        Planned Offering: Winter
        Credits: 2


        This dance class reflects the world dance form that is the specialty of the dance artist-in-residence. The basic dance techniques of that specific form are taught and movement is tied to the historical narrative of the country.

      • ECON 288 - Supervised Study Abroad

        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring
        Credits: 4


        Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102, instructor consent, and other prerequisites as specified by the instructor(s).

        For advanced students, the course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Emphasis and location changes from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. Likely destinations are Europe, Latin America, Africa, or Asia. This course may not be repeated.

      • INTR 296 - Spring Studies in Culture and Society

        FDR: FDR designation to be determined each year
        Credits: 4
        Credits: 4


        A topical seminar that focuses on an interdisciplinary examination of a given society through formal study and direct exposure to its people and culture. The seminar takes place in the target location during the spring term, for which four credits are awarded. May be repeated for credit if the topic and location of the seminar are different.

      • SOAN 286 - Land in American Indian Culture, Religion, and History

        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring 2014 and alternate years
        Credits: 4


        This class focuses on the religious, cultural, and historical dimensions of a selected American Indian nation and ties to its lands as they found expression in the beliefs and practices of its pre- and post-reservation communities. The specific themes that the seminar will address are: 1) Lands, Culture, and Cosmology; 2) Lands, Subsistence, and Ceremony; and 3) Land in the Nation's History; and 4) Sacred Landscape and Contestation.  The course may cover the Lakota Sioux, Cherokee, or other Indian nation. Topic for 2014:

      • SPAN 295 - Special Topics in Conversation

        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring
        Credits: 4


        Prerequisite: Three credits from any 200-level Spanish course or instructor consent.

        Further development of listening and speaking skills necessary for advanced discussion. Acquisition of both practical and topic-specific vocabulary. Appropriate writing and reading assignments, related to the topic, accompany the primary emphasis on conversational skills. Recent topics include: Hispanic Cinema and La Prensa. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

  6. Capstone experience (typically after completion of other program courses):
    • LACS 396 - Capstone Seminar in Latin American and Caribbean Studies

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisites: Declaration and completion of all other minor requirements or instructor consent.

      This capstone course builds upon the foundations developed in LACS 101 and related coursework in the distribution areas. Students discuss assigned readings centered around a key theme or themes of Latin American Studies in connection with an individualized research project. This project is carried out with continual mentoring by a faculty member and in collaboration with peer feedback. Each student presents his/her findings in a formal paper, or other approved end-product, and summarizes the results in an oral presentation.