Environmental Studies Major Requirements

2015 - 2016 Catalog

Environmental Studies major leading to BA degree

A major in environmental studies leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of at least 44 credits, as follows, including at least two 300-level courses. Students also undertake an experiential-learning activity. A student may not complete both a major and a minor in environmental studies.

  1. Required courses: ENV 110, 111; ECON 101, 255; PHIL 150 and either BIOL 325 or GEOL 260
  2. Fundamentals: BIOL 111 and 113 and either GEOL 100, 101 or 105
  3. Technology preparation: INTR 201
  4. Quantitative preparation: BIOL 301 or INTR 202
  5. Interdisciplinary Approaches: One course chosen from BIOL 230, ENV 250, 381, 390, and 395
  6. Systems: One course chosen from among BIOL 217, 245, 246, and GEOL 240
  7. Electives: Two courses in addition to those used for the above requirements and chosen from the following, one of which must be at the 300 level, or from other courses approved in advance by the head of the major:
    BIOL 217, 230, 245, 246, 325
    ECON 356
    ENGL 294
    ENV 207, 212, 295, 381, 390, 395, 493
    GEOL 141, 150, 240, 247
    HIST 336
    PHIL 280
    POL 233
    REL 207, 224 (SOAN 224)
    or, when appropriate, BIOL 398; ECON 288, 289;
    ENGL 293, 380; GEOL 376, 397
  8. Capstone: ENV 397 or 493
  9. Experience: A relevant internship, study abroad, research project, or other experiential learning activity approved in advance by the head of the major.
  1. Required courses:
    • ENV 110 - Introduction to Environmental Studies

      FDR: SS5
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter


      Prerequisite: First-year or sophomore standing or instructor consent.

      An interdisciplinary introduction to environmental studies with an emphasis on how societies organize themselves through their social, political and economic institutions to respond to environmental problems. The course begins with a discussion of the development of environmental thought, focusing on the relationship between humans and the environment. Participants then discuss alternative criteria for environmental decision making, including sustainability, equity, ecological integrity, economic efficiency, and environmental justice. The course concludes with an examination of contemporary environmental issues, including global warming, invasive species, energy and the environment, tropical deforestation, and the relationship between the environment and economic development in developing countries.

    • ENV 111 - Environmental Service Learning

      Credits: 1
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter, Spring


      Prerequisites: ENV 110 and instructor consent.

      Practical application of student knowledge of environmental issues based on supervised volunteer work in the greater Rockbridge community. Students will participate in a service-learning environment. Topics will include environmental education, campus sustainability, conservation and sustainable agriculture in the surrounding region. The course culminates with a paper integrating students' knowledge with practical application throughout the term.

    • ECON 101 - Principles of Microeconomics

      FDR: SS1
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter


      Survey of economic principles and problems with emphasis on analysis of consumer behavior, firm behavior, market outcomes, market structure, and microeconomic policy. The first half of a two-term survey of economics. Should be followed by ECON 102.

    • ECON 255 - Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      Prerequisite: ECON 101. Economics and environmental studies majors/minors will have priority during the initial registration.

      The course serves as an introduction to environmental and natural resource economics. Economic principles are used to evaluate public and private decision making involving the management and use of environmental and natural resources. Aspects pertaining to fisheries, forests, species diversity, agriculture, and various policies to reduce air, water and toxic pollution will be discussed. Lectures, reading assignments, discussions and exams will emphasize the use of microeconomic analysis for managing and dealing with environmental and natural resource problems and issues.

    • PHIL 150 - Ethics and the Environment

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Yearly


      This course is a philosophical exploration of one's responsibilities to the natural world. It has three main objectives: first, to provide an understanding of different dominant ethical theories and their application to animals, plants, and ecosystems; second, to provide an understanding of major environmental issues in current political debates, such as climate change, species preservation, and sustainable development; and third, to facilitate the development of a student's own ethic towards the environment.

    • and either
    • GEOL 260 - GIS and Remote Sensing

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: GEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105. For GEOL or ENV majors only, or by instructor consent.

      A laboratory course introducing the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing in geological/environmental analyses and decision making. Students use state-of-the-art software with a wide variety of spatial geologic, environmental, economic and topographic data derived from satellites; remote databases and published maps to evaluate geologic conditions; local landscape processes; environmental conditions; and hypothetical land-use cases.

    • or
    • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years


      Prerequisites: MATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent.

      This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.

  2. Fundamentals:
    • BIOL 111 - Fundamentals of Biology

      FDR: SL: BIOL 113 is a corequisite for students seeking laboratory science credits
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter


      Corequisite: BIOL 113. Prerequisites: Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors and seniors. Interested upper-division students should contact Bill Hamilton, in the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins.

      An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication applied to topics that vary among sections and terms. Specific subjects, chosen from within the scope of modern biological investigation according to the expertise of individual instructors, are examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This course, and its companion laboratory, are prerequisites for all higher level biology courses.

      Fall 2015, BIOL 111-01: Fundamentals of Biology: Bacterial Genetics (3). An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This section is an introduction to the genes and the mechanisms of gene expression by bacterial cells. It focuses on the current issues of bacterial infections in humans, for example: virulence, antibiotic resistance, or emerging diseases. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Simurda.

      Fall 2015, BIOL 111-02: Fundamentals of Biology: Heart Attacks and High Fructose Corn Syrup (3).  An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. In this section, we investigate the importance of nutrition in the context of the sweetening of our food supply by understanding the biochemical and physiological basis of atherosclerosis which in many patients, when left untreated, leads to a heart attack. This course, and its companion laboratory, are prerequisites for all higher level biology courses. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Hamilton.

      Fall 2015, BIOL 111-04: Fundamentals of Biology: Diversity of Life (3). An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. Biologists use the word diversity, or biodiversity, to describe the variety of life forms in nature. This section is concerned with three major questions about biological diversity on earth: (1) how did it come to be? (2) what is its present condition? (3) what is its future? We cover physiological adaptations, genetic sources of diversity, evolutionary and ecological processes, anthropogenic threats to biodiversity, and conservation. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Hurd.

      Fall 2015, BIOL 111-04: Communication: From Cells to Organisms (3). An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. This section is a discussion of the issues of communication of a cell with its external environment beginning with the single-celled organism. We move on to a consideration of cell size and the evolution of multi-cellular organisms. Multi-cellular forms of communication are introduced and we study their role in maintaining a stable environment for the individual cells of the whole organism. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Parker.

      Fall 2015, BIOL 111-03: Fundamentals of Biology: Genes Drugs and Toxins (3). An intensive investigation of scientific thought and communication, examined in the context of major concepts such as evolution, regulation, growth, and metabolism. The ways in which an organism responds to different drugs or toxins can be heavily influenced by its genetics. In this section, we explore the interplay between genetic variation and differences in the ways in which people respond to therapeutic drugs and environmental toxins. We consider a number of example case studies including the genetic basis for resistance to drugs used to treat cancer and individual variation in sensitivity to common pesticides. Our readings are primarily from the current scientific literature as we focus on the new and emerging fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. In the service of exploring these topics, we also cover: the flow of information from genes to proteins; complex cellular behaviors; molecular and population genetics; and many aspects of cellular physiology and regulation. (SL: BIOL 113 is a co-requisite for students seeking laboratory science credits.) Whitworth.

       

    • BIOL 113 - Biology Laboratory

      FDR: SL: see note in BIOL 111
      Credits: 1
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter


      Corequisite: BIOL 111. Prerequisites: Limited seating available for sophomores, juniors and seniors. Interested upper-division students should contact Charles Winder, in the Biology department, for consent as soon as the class schedule is available and before registration begins.

      Corequisite: BIOL 111.

      A laboratory course to accompany BIOL 111. Students are trained in basic techniques of biological research by demonstrations and investigatory exercises, including data analysis and scientific communication.

    • and either
    • GEOL 100 - General Geology with Field Emphasis

      FDR: SL
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Fall


      Prerequisite: Open to First-years or sophomores only. Instructor consent for juniors and seniors is rarely given. GEOL 100A is open to FY students only.

      The study of our physical environment and the processes shaping it. The materials and structure of the Earth's crust, the origin of the landforms, the concept of geologic time, and the nature of the Earth's interior are considered, with special emphasis on field study in the region near Lexington. No credit for students who have completed GEOL 101. Offered on occasion as a First-Year Seminar. Contact the instructor for additional information. Laboratory course.

      GEOL 100 FS: General Geology with Field Emphasis (4): First-Year Seminar.

    • GEOL 101 - General Geology

      FDR: SL
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Winter


      Prerequisite: Instructor consent required. Preference given to First-years and sophomores.

      The study of our physical environment and the processes shaping it. The materials and structure of the Earth's crust, the origin of the landforms, the concept of geologic time, and the nature of the Earth's interior are considered. No credit for students who have completed GEOL 100. Laboratory course.

    • or
    • GEOL 105 - Earth Lab

      FDR: SL
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring


      Prerequisite: First-Year or sophomore standing only.

      The emphasis and location of the study area differs from year to year. Most course activity involves outside field work with a series of multi-day to multi-week field trips. The primary goal of this course is an in-depth introduction to a particular region or field of geological study for introductory level science students. Information about the course is made available prior to the end of the fall term. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different but only four credits may be used toward major requirements.

  3. Technology preparation:
    • INTR 201 - Information Technology Literacy

      Credits: 1
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter


      Prerequisite: First-year or sophomore standing

      Through the use of interactive online tutorials, students gain proficiency in and a working knowledge of five distinct areas of information technology literacy: Windows Operating System, spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel), word processing (Microsoft Word), presentation software (Microsoft PowerPoint), and basic networking (the Washington and Lee network, basic Web browsing, and Microsoft Outlook). Lessons, exercises, practice exams and exams mix online efforts and hands-on activities.

  4. Quantitative preparation:
    • BIOL 301 - Statistics for Biology and Medicine

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113.

      This course examines the principles of statistics and experimental design for biological and medical research. The focus is on the practical and conceptual aspects of statistics, rather than mathematical derivations. Students completing this class will be able to read and understand research papers, to design realistic experiments, and to carry out their own statistical analyses using computer packages.

    • or
    • INTR 202 - Applied Statistics

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Fall, Winter


      Prerequisite: INTR 201.

      An examination of the principal applications of statistics in accounting, business, economics, and politics. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis.

  5. Interdisciplinary Approaches:
  6. One course chosen from:

    • BIOL 230 - Field Biogeography and Species Conservation

      FDR: SL
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring, when departmental resources permit


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113 or instructor consent. Corequisite: English 294.

      This course emphasizes the patterns of diversity encountered during visits to different regional plant communities where we use professional floristic works to identify vascular plants. In addition, evolutionary and ecological explanations for patterns of distribution and extinction, and the lessons these teach for conservation, are explored. (SL) Laboratory course.

    • ENV 250 - Ecology of Place

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: Instructor consent.

      Think globally, study locally. This course explores globally significant environmental issues such as biodiversity conservation, sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services, and environmental justice, as they are manifested on a local/regional scale. We examine interactions among ethical, ecological, and economic concerns that shape these issues. Students are fully engaged in the development of policy recommendations that could guide relevant decision makers. The course incorporates readings, field trips, films, and discussions with invited experts.

    • ENV 390 - Special Topics: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Issues

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit


      Prerequisites: ENV 110 and 9 credits at the 200 level or above in the environmental studies major.

      This course examines causes of, consequences of, and solutions to contemporary environmental problems. Though topics vary from term to term, the course has a specific focus on the integration of environmental science, policy, and thought so students understand better the cause and effect relationships that shape the interaction between human and environmental systems. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • ENV 395 - Special Topics in Environmental Ethics

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter, Spring


      This course explores areas of topical concern within the field of environmental ethics. The issues explored may vary from year to year. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      Fall 2015, ENV 395-01: The Environmental Philosophy of Aldo Leopold (3). No prerequisite. Student may not also register for PHIL 395. Aldo Leopold is arguably the seminal figure in the history of environmental ethics. This course is an in-depth examination of his thought. Using primary and secondary sources, we explore the development of his major contributions to environmental philosophy. Among the topics included are 1) his land ethic; 2) the nature of his environmental aesthetic; 3) his views on the value of wilderness; 4) his prescient focus on the role of apex predators; 5) his emphasis on the connection between biodiversity and ecosystem function; 6) his development of an ecology of place; and 7) his philosophy of outdoor recreation. (HU) Cooper.

  7. Systems:
  8. One course chosen from among:

    • BIOL 217 - Aquatic Ecology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: BIOL 111 and 113; MATH 101 or higher; or instructor consent.

      This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the ecology of freshwater systems, with laboratory emphasis on streams and rivers in the local area. It includes a review of the physical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems as well as current issues relating to their conservation. Laboratory activities focus around monitoring the impacts of current stream restoration efforts in local watersheds.

    • BIOL 245 - Ecology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Fall


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113.

      An introduction to the study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Topics are arranged hierarchically: a) evolution and elementary population genetics; b) population dynamics and regulation; c) interspecific competition, predation, parasitism and symbiosis; d) community structure, energy and material flux in ecosystems. Laboratory is field oriented and investigative. Laboratory course.

    • BIOL 246 - Biological Diversity: Patterns and Processes

      FDR: SC
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest if expressed and faculty resources permit


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113 or instructor consent.

      How are plants and animals distributed on Earth, and how do important biogeographical patterns reflect ecological and evolutionary processes? The answers to these questions are crucial to conservation efforts and to predicting changes in "biodiversity" during a time of unprecedented, rapid global environmental change.

    • GEOL 240 - Hydrology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Winter 2015


      Prerequisite: GEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105.

      Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams. Laboratory course.

  9. Electives:
  10. Two courses in addition to those used for the above requirements and chosen from the following, one of which must be at the 300 level, or from other courses approved in advance by the head of the major:

    • BIOL 217 - Aquatic Ecology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: BIOL 111 and 113; MATH 101 or higher; or instructor consent.

      This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the ecology of freshwater systems, with laboratory emphasis on streams and rivers in the local area. It includes a review of the physical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems as well as current issues relating to their conservation. Laboratory activities focus around monitoring the impacts of current stream restoration efforts in local watersheds.

    • BIOL 230 - Field Biogeography and Species Conservation

      FDR: SL
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring, when departmental resources permit


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113 or instructor consent. Corequisite: English 294.

      This course emphasizes the patterns of diversity encountered during visits to different regional plant communities where we use professional floristic works to identify vascular plants. In addition, evolutionary and ecological explanations for patterns of distribution and extinction, and the lessons these teach for conservation, are explored. (SL) Laboratory course.

    • BIOL 245 - Ecology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Fall


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113.

      An introduction to the study of interactions between organisms and their environments. Topics are arranged hierarchically: a) evolution and elementary population genetics; b) population dynamics and regulation; c) interspecific competition, predation, parasitism and symbiosis; d) community structure, energy and material flux in ecosystems. Laboratory is field oriented and investigative. Laboratory course.

    • BIOL 246 - Biological Diversity: Patterns and Processes

      FDR: SC
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest if expressed and faculty resources permit


      Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 113 or instructor consent.

      How are plants and animals distributed on Earth, and how do important biogeographical patterns reflect ecological and evolutionary processes? The answers to these questions are crucial to conservation efforts and to predicting changes in "biodiversity" during a time of unprecedented, rapid global environmental change.

    • BIOL 325 - Ecological Modeling and Conservation Strategies

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years


      Prerequisites: MATH 101 or higher and BIOL 111 and 113, or instructor consent.

      This course is an intensive introduction to foundational methods in ecological modeling and their application, with emphasis on the dynamics of exploited or threatened populations and developing strategies for effective conservation. Topics include managing harvested populations, population viability analysis, individual based models, and simulation modeling for systems analyses. Laboratory course.

    • ECON 356 - Economics of the Environment in Developing Countries

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102, and either ECON 255 or 280.

      This course focuses on the unique characteristics of the relationship between the environment and the economy in developing nations. Differences in economic structure, political structure, culture, social organization and ecosystem dynamics are emphasized as alternative policies for environmental and resource management are analyzed.

    • ENGL 294 - Topics in Environmental Literature

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
      Planned Offering: Spring


      Prerequisite: Completion of the FW requirement.

      Studies in the literature of natural history, exploration, and science pertaining to the fundamental relationships between nature and human culture. Versions of this course focus on particular periods and national literatures, or they concentrate on a specific theme or problem. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • ENV 207 - Nature and Place

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3


      This course explores a variety of ideas about and experiences of nature and place Through a consideration of work drawn from diverse disciplines including philosophy, religious studies, literature, art, and anthropology. Questions to be Considered may include: what is the nature of place in our societies, and is there a place for nature in our cultures? How have human beings made places for themselves to dwell in or out of nature? What might make a place a sacred place? Are there any sacred places? (

    • ENV 212 - Land Use and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Chesapeake Watershed

      FDR: SC
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: ENV 110 or instructor consent.

      This field-based course examines Chesapeake aquatic ecosystems from the headwaters through the estuary and how they are affected by human land use. Emphasis is placed on current research and management practices aimed at restoring degraded habitats and promoting sustainable land use and environmental stewardship in coastal watersheds.

    • ENV 390 - Special Topics: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Issues

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit


      Prerequisites: ENV 110 and 9 credits at the 200 level or above in the environmental studies major.

      This course examines causes of, consequences of, and solutions to contemporary environmental problems. Though topics vary from term to term, the course has a specific focus on the integration of environmental science, policy, and thought so students understand better the cause and effect relationships that shape the interaction between human and environmental systems. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • ENV 395 - Special Topics in Environmental Ethics

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter, Spring


      This course explores areas of topical concern within the field of environmental ethics. The issues explored may vary from year to year. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      Fall 2015, ENV 395-01: The Environmental Philosophy of Aldo Leopold (3). No prerequisite. Student may not also register for PHIL 395. Aldo Leopold is arguably the seminal figure in the history of environmental ethics. This course is an in-depth examination of his thought. Using primary and secondary sources, we explore the development of his major contributions to environmental philosophy. Among the topics included are 1) his land ethic; 2) the nature of his environmental aesthetic; 3) his views on the value of wilderness; 4) his prescient focus on the role of apex predators; 5) his emphasis on the connection between biodiversity and ecosystem function; 6) his development of an ecology of place; and 7) his philosophy of outdoor recreation. (HU) Cooper.

    • ENV 493 - Honors Thesis in Environmental Studies

      Credits: 3-3
      Planned Offering: Fall-Winter


      Prerequisite: Senior standing, honors candidacy, and consent of the environmental studies faculty.

      Honors Thesis.

    • GEOL 141 - Global Climate Change

      FDR: SC
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Not offered in 2014-2015


      A study of Earth's complex climate system and the impact of human activities on future climates. Through readings, discussions, data analyses and modeling exercises, the past and future changes in temperature, ocean circulation, rainfall, storminess, biogeochemistry, glacial ice extent and sea level are explored.

    • GEOL 150 - Water Resources

      FDR: SC
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter 2015


      An examination of the quality and quantity of water resources as a limiting factor for life on earth. Issues include resource depletion, pollution, historical use and over-use, remediation, habitat maintenance, and water supply mechanisms. Resource constraints are analyzed from a scientific perspective in order to understand water resource problems and envision solutions.

    • GEOL 240 - Hydrology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Winter 2015


      Prerequisite: GEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105.

      Systems and processes of water movement on and below the Earth's surface. Encompasses the theoretical and applied aspects of soil moisture, runoff, flooding, groundwater movement, and water-well use. Numerical evaluation of flow properties from field and lab data describing water movement in soils, aquifers, and streams. Laboratory course.

    • GEOL 247 - Geomorphology

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Fall 2014


      Prerequisite: GEOL 100, GEOL 101 or GEOL 105.

      Investigation of landforms from maps, aerial photographs, digital data, and the analysis of the surficial processes by which they are formed. Laboratory activities include identification and interpretation of topography, field measurements of landscape form and process, and a required weekend field trip. Laboratory course.

    • PHIL 280 - Philosophy of Nature

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3


      An examination of various understandings of nature and the natural from the ancient Greeks to the present. The course includes exploration of basic philosophical issues regarding the concepts "nature," "wild," and "wilderness." The focus is on the relationship between landscapes and conceptualizations of time, self, and community.

    • POL 233 - Environmental Policy and Law

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      Prerequisite: ECON 101 or POL 100.

      A study of major environmental laws and the history of their enactment and implementation. Discusses different theoretical approaches from law, ethics, politics, and economics. Reviews significant case law and the legal context. Emphasis is on domestic policy with some attention to international law and treaties.

    • REL 207 - Nature and Place

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3


      Through a consideration of work drawn from diverse disciplines including philosophy, religious studies, literature, art, and anthropology, this course explores a variety of ideas about and experiences of nature and place.

    • REL 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities (SOAN 224)

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter 2016 and alternate years


      Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non- Indians hold regarding the environment.

    • or, when appropriate:
      • BIOL 398 - Selected Topics in Ecology and Evolution

        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit


        Prerequisites: BIOL 220, and at least junior standing.

        Topics include ecology, behavior, evolution, and natural history of selected taxonomic groups. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      • ECON 288 - Supervised Study Abroad

        Credits: 4
        Planned Offering: Spring


        Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102, instructor consent, and other prerequisites as specified by the instructor(s).

        For advanced students, the course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Emphasis and location changes from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. Likely destinations are Europe, Latin America, Africa, or Asia. This course may not be repeated.

      • ENGL 293 - Topics in American Literature

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3-4
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter, Spring


        Prerequisite: Completion of the FW requirement.

        Studies in American literature, supported by attention to historical contexts. Versions of this course may survey several periods or concentrate on a group of works from a short span of time. Students develop their analytical writing skills in a series of short papers. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

        Fall 2015, ENGL 293-01: Topics in American Literature: Sex and Intimacy in American Literature (3). This course surveys the formations of intimate feelings in the literature from Hawthorne's take on Puritans to Ginsberg's open celebration of gay sex. We will look at how different periods of American culture - the Romantics, Realists, Moderns, and post-Moderns - represent intimacy, its relation to gender and race, and why, in a country touted for its optimism, love in literature always seems to end badly. (HL) Leland.

      • ENGL 380 - Advanced Seminar

        FDR: HL
        Credits: 3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
        Planned Offering: Fall, Winter, Spring


        Prerequisite: ENGL 299. Enrollment limited.

        A seminar course on a topic, genre, figure, or school (e.g. African-American women's literature, epic film, Leslie Marmon Silko, feminist literary theory) with special emphasis on research and discussion. The topic will be limited in scope to permit study in depth. Student suggestions for topics are welcome. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      • GEOL 376
      • GEOL 397 - Seminar

        Credits: 3
        Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit


        Prerequisite: GEOL 100, 101 or 105. Open to GEOL majors only.

        The title, term of meeting, and credits for seminars will be announced to all geology majors. May be repeated for degree credit with permission and if the topics are different.

  11. Capstone:
    • ENV 397 - Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      Prerequisites: ENV 110 and completion of any two of the three remaining areas for the Program in Environmental Studies, and instructor consent.

      An interdisciplinary capstone course intended for students in the environmental studies program. Students analyze a particular environmental issue and attempt to integrate scientific inquiry, political and economic analysis and ethical implications. The particular issue changes each year.

    • or
    • ENV 493 - Honors Thesis in Environmental Studies

      Credits: 3-3
      Planned Offering: Fall-Winter


      Prerequisite: Senior standing, honors candidacy, and consent of the environmental studies faculty.

      Honors Thesis.

  12. Experience:
  13. A relevant internship, study abroad, research project, or other experiential learning activity approved in advance by the head of the major.