Africana Studies Minor Requirements

2015 - 2016 Catalog

Africana Studies Minor

A minor in Africana studies requires completion of 21 credits. In meeting the requirements of this interdisciplinary minor, a student must use at least nine (9) credits not also used to meet the requirements of any other major or minor.

1. AFCA 130: Introduction to Africana Studies

2. Africa-focused course. One course chosen from among HIST 273, 376, 377; POL 215, 249; and, when appropriate, AFCA 295, ECON 288, 295; FREN 280; HIST 269; POL 288

3. African Diaspora-focused course. One course chosen from among ECON 232; ENGL 366; HIST 259, 260; MUS 221; POL 250; 350, 360; SOAN 228; and, when appropriate, AFCA 295, FREN 344

4. Three additional courses from categories 2 and 3 above and the following courses: ECON 233; ENGL 350; HIST 131, 366; LACS 257; LIT 259; PHIL 242; PSYC 269; and, when appropriate, ECON 280; FREN 397; LIT 295

5. Capstone Experience: AFCA 403 or a relevant individual project, senior thesis, or honors thesis approved in advance by the Africana Studies program committee and supervised by a member of the program faculty, typically taken after completion of other minor requirements.

  1. Required:
    • AFCA 130 - Introduction to Africana Studies

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      This seminar, taught collaboratively in four discrete modules, introduces students to the issues, debates, and moments which have shaped and continue to shape the broad and complex field of Africana Studies and the multifaceted experiences and aspirations of peoples of African descent. Among other effects, students who take this class gain a broad appreciation of the historical and philosophical context necessary for understanding the specific identities and contributions to world cultures and civilizations of Africans, African Americans, and Africans in the greater Diaspora; and develop thinking, analytical, writing, and collaborative skills as students complete a major project with one or more of their classmates.

  2. Africa-focused course. Take one course from among the following:
    • HIST 273 - East Afric A Thousand Years

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3


      Detailed study of East Africa (the area today occupied by Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) during the past millennium. Topics include the Swahili city-states of the coast, farming and herding societies of the Rift Valley, Great Lakes kingdoms, Zanzibar Sultanate, European colonial rule, and successes and failures of modern nation-states.

    • HIST 377 - Seminar: Congo, Rwanda, and The Modern World

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

      Examines how this seemingly remote region became the inspiration for the first modern human rights campaign, the source of the uranium used to build the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, a hot spot in the Cold War, and the setting for a genocide that spilled over into an "African World War" fueled by intricate links between African resources and the global economy.

    • POL 215 - International Development

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall or Winter


      A study of international development and human capability, with a focus on Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The course analyzes theories to explain development successes and failures, with a focus on the structures, institutions, and actors that shape human societies and social change. Key questions include measuring economic growth and poverty, discussing the roles of states and markets in development, and examining the role of industrialized countries in reducing global poverty. The course explores links between politics and other social sciences and humanities.

    • POL 249 - African Politics

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2014 and every fourth year


      This course focuses on the politics, society, and economy of Africa during the 20th and 21st centuries. Major topics include: politics and economics of development, poverty, and human capability; authoritarian rule and transitions to democracy; causes and consequences of social change; and relations between Africa and the rest of the world. The course enables students to select country case studies for individual and group research, with a view toward testing hypotheses and formulating theories about comparative politics in Africa.

    • and, when appropriate,
    • AFCA 295 - Seminar in Africana Studies

      Credits: 3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring


      Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

      Students in this course study a group of African-American, African, or Afro-Caribbean works related by theme, culture, topic, genre, historical period, or critical approach. In the Spring Term version, the course involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • ECON 288 - Supervised Study Abroad

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring


      Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102, instructor consent, and other prerequisites as specified by the instructor(s).

      For advanced students, the course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Emphasis and location changes from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. Likely destinations are Europe, Latin America, Africa, or Asia. This course may not be repeated.

    • ECON 295 - Special Topics in Economics

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit


      Prerequisites: Normally ECON 101 and 102 but may vary with topic.

      Course emphasis and prerequisites change from term to term and are announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. A maximum of nine credits chosen from all special topics in economics courses may be used, with permission of the department head, toward requirements for the economics major.

      Fall 2015, ECON 295A-01: Women in the Economy (3). This course explores how economic theory and analysis can be applied to examine the multiple roles that women play in our society. In particular, we examine linkages and changes in women's human capital, marriage, fertility, family structure, and occupation and labor supply decisions in the post-World War II era, and investigate the magnitude and causes of the gender wage gap. Students assess how much of the gender wage gap can be explained by education and occupational choice, and how much appears to be due to discrimination. We also learn about (and try to explain) the differences in the gender wage gap for women with and without children, and explore how the legalization of the birth control pill has influenced the marriage, fertility, family structure, educational, and occupational decisions of women. Shester. Fall 2015

    • FREN 280 - Civilisation et culture francophones

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall


      Prerequisites: FREN 162, FREN 164, or equivalent.

      A study of significant aspects of culture and civilization in francophone countries. Topics may include: contemporary Africa, pre-colonial Africa, West Indian history and culture, and Canadian contemporary issues. Readings, discussion and papers in French further development of communication skills.

    • HIST 269 - Topics in United States, Latin American or Canadian History

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3 in fall or winter; 4 in spring


      A course offered from time to time, depending on student interest and staff availability, on a selected topic or problem in United States, Latin American or Canadian history. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      FALL 2015, HIST 269A-01: The American Century: U.S. History, 1945-Present (3). This course explores the history of the United States since the end of World War II. Major topics include the Bomb, the rise and fall of American liberalism, the Cold War at home and abroad, suburbanization and the consumer culture, race and civil rights, feminism, anti-feminism, and the gay and lesbian liberation movements, Vietnam and foreign policy, the rise of conservatism and neoliberalism, and the challenges of globalization. (HU) Michelmore.

      FALL 2015, HIST 269B-01: The United States in World War II (3). This course studies the causes, course, and consequences of World War II, with a particular emphasis on its impact on American life, culture, and politics. We focus on the war "over there" in Europe and the Pacific as well as the war "over here" on the home front. Topics include military and diplomatic strategy, the impact of the war on women and racial minorities, economic mobilization, the importance of science and technology, the development of nuclear weapons, and the Holocaust. (HU) Michelmore.

      FALL 2015, HIST 269C-01:The Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age (3). An intensive survey of urban African American life from 1911 to 1940, with particular emphasis on the Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age.  Our study examines art, literature, music, black intellectual thought, and political developments of the period. (HU) DeLaney

    • POL 288 - Supervised Study Abroad

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and every third year


      Prerequisites: Instructor consent and other prerequisites as specified in advance.

      This spring-term course covers a topic of current interest for which foreign travel provides a unique opportunity for significantly greater understanding. Topics and locations change from year to year and is announced each year, well in advance of registration. This course may be repeated if the topics are different. Offered when interest and expressed and department resources permit.

  3. African Diaspora-focused course. Take one course chosen from among:
    • ECON 232 - African-American Human Capital Development: Challenges and Opportunities

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2012 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: ECON 101.

      The course analyzes policies and institutions in the U.S. that influence African-Americans in their development of human capital. Examples of topics explored include early child development, K-12 education, postsecondary education, wealth, job training programs, housing segregation, and access to quality health care.

    • ENGL 366 - African-American Literature

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall 2016 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: ENGL 299.

      A focused engagement with the African-American literary tradition, from its beginnings in the late 18th century through its powerful assertions in the 21st. The focus of each term's offering may vary; different versions of the course might emphasize a genre, author, or period such as poetry, Ralph Ellison, or the Harlem Renaissance.

    • HIST 259 - The History of the African-American People to 1877

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall 2015 and alternate years


      An intensive study of the African-American experience from the colonial period through Reconstruction. Special emphasis is given to the slave experience, free blacks, black abolitionists, development of African-American culture, Emancipation, Black Reconstruction, and racial attitudes.

    • HIST 260 - The History of the African-American People since 1877

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall 2016


      An intensive study of the African-American experience from 1877 to the present. Special emphasis is given to the development of black intellectual and cultural traditions, development of urban communities, emergence of the black middle class, black nationalism, the civil rights era, and the persistence of racism in American society.

    • MUS 221 - History of Jazz

      FDR: HA
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall


      A study of the development of jazz from its roots in turn-of-the-century New Orleans to contemporary styles. Strong emphasis is placed on listening and recognition of the performers and composers discussed.

    • POL 250 - Black American Politics

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall or Winter


      Prerequisite: POL 111 or AFCA 130.

      A study of important black figures in American political thought. The course focuses on the intellectual history of black Americans but also considers contemporary social science and public policies dealing with race in America.

    • POL 350 - Seminar: Ralph Ellison and the American Dream

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring 2015 and alternate years


      Prerequisite: At least sophomore standing or instructor consent.

      The goal of the seminar is to discern the social and political implications of Ralph Ellison's conception of America. Students read his classic novel, Invisible Man (1952), as well as many of his other works of fiction and non-fiction, as a way to examine the American Dream in the context of the gap between American political principle and practice.

    • POL 360 - Seminar: Lincoln's Statesmanship

      FDR: SS2
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall or Winter


      Prerequisite: POL 100.

      This seminar examines the political thought and practice of Abraham Lincoln. Emphasis is on his speeches and writings, supplemented by scholarly commentary on his life and career.

    • SOAN 228 - Race and Ethnic Relations

      FDR: SS4
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall


      Prerequisite: At least junior standing. Instructor consent required.

      An analysis of minority groups in America. Theories of ethnicity are examined focusing on the relationship between class and ethnicity, and on the possible social and biological significance of racial differences. Attention is also given to prejudice and discrimination, as well as to consideration of minority strategies to bring about change.

    • and, when appropriate,
    • AFCA 295 - Seminar in Africana Studies

      Credits: 3 credits in fall or winter, 4 in spring


      Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

      Students in this course study a group of African-American, African, or Afro-Caribbean works related by theme, culture, topic, genre, historical period, or critical approach. In the Spring Term version, the course involves field trips, film screenings, service learning, and/or other special projects, as appropriate, in addition to 8-10 hours per week of class meetings. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    • FREN 344 - La Francophonie

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      Prerequisite: Three courses at the 200 level.

      An analysis of styles, genres, and themes in relation to particular cultural contexts, as represented in literary works written in French by authors from countries other than France. Of particular interest is French language literature from Africa, the Caribbean, and Canada. May be repeated for degree credit if the topic is different.

  4. Three additional courses from categories 2 and 3 above and the following courses:
    • ECON 233 - Colorism

      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Spring


      Prerequisite: ECON 101.

      Colorism is the allocation of privilege and disadvantage according to the lightness or darkness of one's skin. The practices of colorism tend to favor lighter skin over darker skin, although in rare cases the opposite practice also occurs. Colorism is present both within and among racial groups, a testament to its role as something related to but different than race. Colorism is enacted among racial groups in various contexts, from preferences in classroom settings and hiring decisions to patterns in sentencing. This course draws on analytical structures and insights from the social sciences -- especially economics, sociology, anthropology, and psychology -- as well as material from the humanities to explore the socio-economic consequences. The investigation is global in perspective and makes use of film and music in to enrich insights gained from course readings and classroom discussion. The course fosters the development and use of critical thinking, effective writing, and oral presentation skills while exploring the colorism.

    • ENGL 350 - Postcolonial Literature

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall 2015


      Prerequisites: ENGL 299.

      A study of the finest writers of postcolonial poetry, drama, and fiction in English. The course examines themes and techniques in a historical context, asking what "postcolonial" means to writers of countries formerly colonized by the British. Topics include colonization and decolonization; writing in the colonizer's language; questions of universality; hybridity, exile, and migrancy; the relationship of postcolonial to postmodern; Orientalism; censorship; and the role of post-imperial Britain in the publication, distribution, and consumption of postcolonial literature.

    • HIST 131 - Modern Latin Americ Túpak Katari to Tupac Shakur

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      A survey of Latin America from the 1781 anticolonial rebellion led by indigenous insurgent Túpak Katari to a globalized present in which Latin American youth listen to Tupac Shakur yet know little of his namesake. Lectures are organized thematically (culture, society, economics, and politics) and chronologically, surveying the historical formation of people and nations in Latin America. Individual countries (especially Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru) provide examples of how local and transnational forces have shaped the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of North and South America and the Caribbean, and the cultural distinctions and ethnic diversity that characterize a region too often misperceived as homogeneous.

    • HIST 366 - Seminar: Slavery in the Americas

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing.

      An intensive examination of slavery, abolition movements and emancipation in North America, the Caribbean and Latin America. Emphasis is on the use of primary sources and class discussion of assigned readings.

    • LACS 257 - Multiculturalism in Latin Americ The Case of Brazil

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 4
      Planned Offering: Offered in Spring when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit


      This seminar studies Brazil as an example of a multicultural society. Students examine the meaning of multiculturalism and related concepts of identity, heterogeneity, and Eurocentrism, not only in regard to the Brazilian context, but also, comparatively, to that of US culture. The course focuses on the social dynamics that have engaged Brazilians of different backgrounds, marked by differences of gender, ethnicity, and class, and on how multiculturalism and the ensuing conflicts have continuously shaped and reshaped individual subjectivities and national identity. Some of the key issues to be addressed in class are: Brazil's ethnic formation; myths of national identity; class and racial relations; and women in Brazilian society. Readings for the class include novels, short stories, poetry, and testimonial/diary

    • LIT 259 - The French Caribbean Novel

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3


      Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement.

      A stylistic and thematic study of identity acquisition through exile, marginalization, struggle, reintegration and cultural blending or any other sociologically significant phenomenon reflected in the literary works of the most important post-colonial French West Indian authors. Spawned largely by Aimé Césaire's book-length poem, Notebook of a Return to My Native Land , French Caribbean novels have proliferated since the end of World War II. After taking a brief look first at this seminal poem, the course then focuses analytically on novels written by authors such as Haitian Jacques Roumain, Guadeloupeans Simone Schwarz-Bart and Maryse Condé, and Martinicans Joseph Zobel, Raphaël Confiant, and Édouard Glissant. Several films based on, or pertaining to, Césaire's poem and to certain novels are also viewed.

    • PHIL 242 - Social Inequality and Fair Opportunity

      FDR: HU
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Winter


      An exploration of the different range of opportunities available to various social groups, including racial, ethnic and sexual minorities, women, and the poor. Topics include how to define fair equality of opportunity; the social mechanisms that play a role in expanding and limiting opportunity; legal and group-initiated strategies aimed at effecting fair equality of opportunity and the theoretical foundations of these strategies; as well as an analysis of the concepts of equality, merit and citizenship, and their value to individuals and society.

    • PSYC 269 - Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall


      Prerequisites: PSYC 114 and PSYC 250 (as co-req or pre-req) or instructor consent.

      This course examines cognitive and affective processes involved in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Causes and social implications of prejudice involving various stigmatized groups (e.g., African-Americans, women, homosexuals, people of low socioeconomic status, overweight individuals) are examined. Participants focus on attitudes and behaviors of both perpetrators and targets of prejudice that likely contribute to and result from social inequality.

    • and, when appropriate,
    • ECON 280 - Development Economics

      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall or Winter


      Prerequisites: ECON 101 and 102.

      A survey of the major issues of development economics. Economic structure of low-income countries and primary causes for their limited economic growth. Economic goals and policy alternatives. Role of developed countries in the development of poor countries. Selected case studies.

    • FREN 397 - Séminaire avancé

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3
      Planned Offering: Fall


      Prerequisite: Three courses at the 200 level.

      The in-depth study of a topic in French literature and/or civilization. Recent offerings include: La Littérature francophone du Maghreb; La littérature Beure; La France sous l'occupation; Les femmes et l'écriture au XVIIe siècle; Les écrivains du XXe siècle et la diversité culturelle; L'affaire Dreyfus. Students are encouraged to use this course for the development of a personal project. May be repeated for degree credit when the topics are different.

      Fall 2015, FREN 397-01: Séminaire avancé: Female Protagonists and Heroines in 20th- and 21st-Century French Literature (3). This seminar explores representations of women and femininity as well as the heroine in novels and theater since the turn of the 20th century to today. Discussions include gender, sexuality and their treatment in narrative or drama. Some of the authors studied are Colette, Marguerite Duras, Francois Mauriac, Helene Cixous, and Matei Visniec. (HL) Radulescu. Fall 2015

    • LIT 295 - Special Topics in Literature in Translation

      FDR: HL
      Credits: 3 credits in Fall or Winter; 4 credits in Spring
      Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit


      Prerequisites: Completion of FW requirement.

      A selected topic focusing on a particular author, genre, motif or period in translation. The specific topic is determined by the interests of the individual instructor. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

      Fall 2015, LIT 295-01: Special Topics in Literature in Translation: Spaces and Places In Arabic Literature (3). Starting at the pre-Islamic ode's space of the abandoned campsite, place is a central organizing trope in the Arabic literary canon. Through the dynamic lens of time itself, this course examines the making of historical, geographic, social, and political spaces in Arabic literature. We survey fifteen hundred years of literary production and explore how Arabic poetry, Arabic adab (belles-lettres), biographies, short stories, newspapers, and novels create and (re-)produce spaces across time. Students read literature as sites refiguring complex social, historical, and political relations that can to be analyzed, discussed, and explained. In the context of these sites, dynamic processes of historiography, identity creation, and nation building are staged and unfold. We approach the readings from an array of perspectives, considering space as a place, as a condition, and as a practice. The course presupposes no previous knowledge of the Arabic language or the cultures of the Middle East. All readings are in translation and available on Sakai. Class discussions in English. Questions? Contact Prof. Antoine Edwards at edwardsa@wlu.edu. (HL) Edwards. Fall 2015

      Fall 2015, LIT 295A-01: Anti-Semitism in German Culture (3). Prerequisite: Completion of FW requirement. This course deals primarily with the question of how the relatively small Jewish minority came to occupy so much space in the German cultural imagination. An interdisciplinary study drawing on political, literary, and theological texts, the course begins in the 18th century and traces the development of anti-Semitism in Germany through the eliminationist version of the World War II era. No previous familiarity with the subject matter is necessary. (HL) Youngman. Fall 2015

      Winter 2016, LIT 295-01: Growing up Female: Inter-American Perspectives (3). Meets the humanities requirement of the WGS minor. An introduction to the Bildungsroman, also known as Novel of Development, Novel of Apprenticeship, or the Coming-of-Age Novel. While the traditional Bildungsroman focused on the intellectual, social, and sexual education of a male hero, women writers have also employed the genre to tell about female development. The course focuses on female protagonists from various social backgrounds and ethnic groups, in novels, short stories, and testimonial narratives by women writers from across the Americas. An inter-American focus helps students explore comparatively what is unique about each work, as well as their similarities as fictional and non-fictional narratives of development. (HL) Pinto Bailey.

  5. Capstone Experience:
  6. AFCA 403 or a relevant individual project, senior thesis, or honors thesis approved in advance by the Africana Studies program committee and supervised by a member of the program faculty, typically taken after completion of other minor requirements.